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EN
The system of preventing and resolving alcohol-related problems used in Poland gives municipalities (gminas), as territorial units, the fundamental role in it. The municipality council is obliged to establish a number of programmes on the basis of the act on municipality self-government, as well as the regulations of other acts, including the Act of 26th October 1982 on Upbringing in Sobriety and Counteracting Alcoholism (A.U.S.C.A.) of the Municipality Programme for Preventing and Resolving Alcohol-related Problems (LCPP&RAP). The programme takes into account the areas of action listed in Article 41 section 1 of the A.U.S.C.A. and the indications included in the recommendations developed by the National Agency for Resolving Alcohol-related Problems. It should be emphasized that the implementation of tasks in the field of preventing and resolving alcohol-related problems under the programme is part of the strategy for resolving social problems, and takes into account the operational objectives set out in the National Health Programme. The regulations of the A.U.S.C.A. also provide the municipality witha significant role in implementing actions to tackle alcohol addiction. The actions are taken on three levels by: (1) appointing a local community committee for resolving problems (Article 41 section 3), (2) determining within resolutions the maximum number of permits for the sale of alcoholic beverages and the rules of locating places of sale and serving alcoholic beverages (Article 12 sections 1–3), (3) issuing permits for the sale of alcohol (Article 18 section 1) and monitoring the legitimacy of using these permits (Article 18 section 8). In addition, the LCPP&RAP provides solutions regarding forms, methods and projects undertaken by the municipality. It is important to note that the municipality self-government, as a result of decentralization of the state, has received extensive competence to conduct its own policy on alcohol-related problems, which is why its role is crucial.
EN
Medical law is subject to various approaches and definitions in the jurisprudence. It can be derived from the complexity of the matter, as well as its considerable novelty. Methods applied to define medical law stem from various jurispruden- tial convictions. This article turns attention to such basic problems of defining medical law as ratione materiae of the regulation, social structure underpinning regulation, and theoretical approaches (conceptual approach to law system, derivative concept of interpretation) to building a law system.
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Content available remote Modern Factors of Health and Their Peculiarities for Teenagers
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The work aimed at specifying modern features of civilizational factors influence on the health, revealing peculiarities of young age, establishing reflexion of modern factors of health in methodological approaches to health studying. Changes in understanding health are reflected in its studying methodology. The analysis of sociological research data shows, that the social stress became the main reason of medical-demographic situation deterioration in days of reforms. The mechanism of its influence was the loss of effective labor motivation, social envy, and deterioration of spiritual condition of a society. Material well-being decrease was not a determinative factor. The problem of inequalities in health gets the increasing urgency. It is connected with physical and social living environment; availability of qualitative medical aid; specific features of behavior of people. At a medical aid guarantee, and at teenage age, factors of social living environment, which influence behavior in health sphere by means of stigmatization are especially significant.
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Objectives. Post exercise proteinuria (PEP) is found in about 20–40% of sportsmen after intensive exercise. Urinary NGAL is a new marker of tubulointerstitial kidney damage. The relationship between PEP and uNGAL has not been defined yet. In presented study a resting uNGAL as a predictor of PEP was analyzed. The changes of albuminuria after exercise were monitored to estimate a frequency and range of PEP. Methods. 40 amateur healthy runners (mean age 36.65 ±10.61 years) participating in 10-km run took part in the study. Before and after the competition urine was collected. NGAL, albumin and creatinine were subsequently measured in urine. uNGAL to creatinine ratio (NCR) and albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) were calculated. Results. 28 participants (mean age 37.9 ±11.46, 19 M, 9 F) with uNGAL below 15 ng/ml before competition were analyzed. The increase of ACR was observed in every case. Mean post-exercise ACR was 104.55 ±123.1 mg/g and was significantly higher than pre-exercise ACR 6.33 ±5.86 mg/g (p < 0.0005). The positive correlation was found between resting NCR and post-exercise ACR (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). Conclusions. Resting uNGAL positively correlated with PEP. The possible explanation of these findings is that persons with PEP had some early, occult tubulointersitial kidney damage. It is speculated that those runners have higher risk of chronic kidney disease.
EN
Health is one of the most important values in every person's life. A healthy lifestyle should be an important element in the value hierarchy of children and adolescents. Health behaviors are one of the most important determinants of human health and are the basis for the correct development of children. The aim of the article is to provide feedback to students at a younger school age on health behavior and health in their personal value hierarchy.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in heart rate recovery (HRr) in trained and untrained adults, while assessing the role of physiological and emotional factors. Eighteen untrained and 21 trained participants completed a maximal exercise test and a 20-min treadmill exercise at 55–70% heart rate reserve, and emotional state was assessed prior to exercise. Multiple regression was used to assess relationships between heart rate recovery and physiological and emotional assessments. The trained group had a higher relative maximal oxygen consumption (p < 0.001), lower resting heart rate (p < 0.001), and faster short- and long-term heart rate recovery (p < 0.05) than the untrained group. Resting heart rate was the most predictive measure with HRr for the trained group (R = 0.551–0.818), whereas resting heart rate, maximal heart rate, and fitness were predictors of recovery in the untrained group (R = 0.764–0.977). The results show the predominant parasympathetic influence on HRr in the trained group, but indicates influence of fitness and exercise intensity on recovery in the untrained group. Thus, fitness appears to influence HRr in those only with low fitness. This notion may help influence the behavior of untrained individuals to improve fitness to reduce risk of mortality and morbidity.
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The World Health Organisation's rationale for physical activity draws heavily on scientific evidence regarding disease and obesity. Greater philosophical reflection on such concepts, along with a recognition that supposed scientific facts are rarely value-free, allow for a more positive and considered argument for physical activity and its benefits. Olympism, Olympic culture, sports education, pedagogy of sport
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The aim of the paper is to explore how non-medical factors influence health and well-being, quality of life (QoL). Thus, cultural attendance takes a significant role on QoL because namely culture is an important domain for health and QoL simultaneously. To analyze the possible connection between culture and health, and, attendance of cultural events in case of social project Cultural Prescription presented in a paper as one of the important dimensions of QoL. The article provides the results of that social project from a perspective of Lithuanian health care practitioners. Continuing about QoL and state inputs to it, cultural policy domains are presented to create an overall picture of it and make conditions for connection of those two segments. Research results indicate its advantages and disadvantages, which identified by health care practitioners as intermediaries between project’s organizers and those who receive prescriptions (patients).
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Physical fitness and health are two concepts that more and more evidence show their close relationship. The main aim of this paper is to provide an assessment protocol accessible, affordable and easy to apply, to assess fitness and health. To test the protocol, a total amount of 115 participants (59 men and 56 women) aged 25.9 years were assessed. The assessment protocol is designed and tested for application in a population over 18 years of age. It was used to assess the University of Balearic Islands community users. Based on evidence and validated tests (Alpha and Afisal test batteries, Stepping Queen College Test), the following measures for the design of the protocol for assessing the level of fitness and health were recorded: anthropometry (weight, BMI, body fat, waist circumference), fitness (lower extremity strength, upper body endurance, hand grip strength, maximum oxygen intake, flexibility), and blood pressure. The assessment protocol include the previous action of the reception of the participant (explanation and administering of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire) and an ending action where a report of the results obtained and individual recommendations to improve the overall fitness and health level is provided to each participant.
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The authors of the petition postulate an amendment to the act by introducing a ban on the production and sale in Poland of food products containing carcinogenic palm oil. In the opinion of the author, the postulate to introduce a total ban on the production and sale of food products containing palm oil in the Republic of Poland seems too far-reaching. However, it is worth to consider introducing rules that would contribute to limiting the content of this oil in food products.
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Content available remote Analysis of cribra orbitalia in the earliest inhabitants of medieval Vilnius
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The purpose of this work is to present an analysis of cribra orbitalia (CO) from the population of a medieval cemetery in Vilnius, Lithuania, dated between the end of the 13th to the beginning of the 15th centuries. The sample consisted of 208 individuals with sufficiently preserved orbits: 82 subadults and 122 adults. CO was correlated with sex, age-at-death, and three skeletal indicators of biological health: linear enamel hypoplasia, periostitis, and adult femur length as a proxy value for stature. Siler's and Gompertz-Makeham's parametric models of mortality as well as χ2 statistics were used to evaluate these relationships. Almost one-third of all analyzed individuals had signs of CO, including approximately 60% of the subadults. There was a very strong relationship between the age-at-death and incidence of CO, i.e., individuals with the lesion were dying much younger. The frequency of CO among the sexes was not statistically significant. On the other hand, CO had a negative effect only on adult males, i.e., males who had the lesion died at a younger age. Furthermore, CO and linear enamel hypoplasia were positively related for subadults, whereas no significant relationships were found among adults of corresponding sex. Incidence of periostitis and adult stature were not related to CO.
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Celem tej pracy była analizacribra orbitalia(CO) w populacji ze średniowiecznego Wilna (Litwa), zbadanej na podstawie próby szkieletów z cmentarzyska datowanego od końca XIII do początków XV wieku. Podstawowe charakterystyki paleodemograficzne tej próby (208 osobników, w tym 82 młodocianych) zawiera tabela 1. Zbadano korelację CO z płcią, wiekiem w chwili śmierci i trzema kostnymi wyznacznikami zdrowia - hipoplazją szkliwa zębowego (LEH), śladami zapalenia okostnej i wysokością ciała (dorosłych). Do oceny zależności wykorzystano parametryczne modele umieralności Silera i Gompertz-Makehama oraz statystykę χ2.Prawie 1/3 badanych osobników (32%)wykazywała CO, w tym 60% osobników młodocianych (zmarłych przed 15 rokiem życia). Ponadto analiza wykazała wysoką zależność między tą cechą a wiekiem w chwili śmierci - osoby ze śladami CO umierały znacznie młodziej (Fig. 1, 2). Może to sugerować, ze ważnym czynnikiem podnoszącym ryzyko zgonu wśród osobników młodocianych była anemia. Co więcej, jeśli nie są to ślady remodelowania, mogą one sugerować, że stresujące wydarzenia z dzieciństwa wpłynęły także pośrednio lub bezpośrednio na przeżywalność osób dorosłych. Choć u dorosłych kobiet CO występowały nieco częściej niż u mężczyzn, różnica nie była istotna. Z drugiej strony, CO miały negatywny wpływ tylko na dorosłych mężczyzn (umierali oni młodziej). Być może kobiety miały więc sprawniejszy układ odpornościowy. Innym wyjaśnieniem mogłaby być śmierć bardziej wrażliwych na ten czynnik dziewcząt w wieku młodocianym. CO pozytywnie korelowały z LEH u młodocianych, podczas gdy istotnych korelacji u dorosłych nie stwierdzono (tab. 2). Można sądzić, że młodociane i słabe osobniki z cechą CO, z większym prawdopodobieństwem miały LEH. Tak więc interakcje obu czynników sygnalizowanych obecnością cech CO i LEH mogły być odpowiedzialne za skracanie życia młodych osobników.Periostitisi wysokość ciała w badanej próbie nie wykazywały związku z CO (tab. 2).
EN
Aim Smoking among young people is becoming an increasingly serious problem. The solution to the problems related to smoking can be brought about by the constant reconstruction of behavior patterns, a systematic change of customs and cultural patterns, included in the educational anti-smoking programs of Health Promoting Schools. The aim was to evaluate the structure of cigarette smoking, the demographic and environmental factors that determine smoking among young people. Material and methods The study was conducted in five Health Promoting Schools in Tarnow (Junior High School, High School). 663 students from five schools participated in the study, age 13-18. The study has been conducted two Times among the same sample: when the participants started school and in the end of education. The students completed an author`s questionnaire based on the HBSC report. Results Cigarette smoking was declared by 32.0% of the students in the first study (boys – S=1,15; SD=0,36; girls – S=1,12, SD=0,32). In the second study, cigarette smoking was declared by 37.3% (boys – S=1,3, SD=0,36; girls – S=1,18; SD=0,39). Boys have ever smoked significantly more often than girls (1st study – p=0.0131, 2nd study – p=0.0028). There were statistically significantly more people living in rural areas and smoking cigarettes (28.5%) compared to people living in urban areas (19.9%) (p=0.006). During school education, both boys and girls increased the number of cigarettes smoked and the frequency of smoking. Conclusions The health promoting schools surveyed failed to delay and prevent tobacco initiation among adolescents. Effective prophylaxis cannot be implemented also without the support of parents.
EN
Introduction. Health behaviors are all behaviors related to health. The study was aimed at recognizing the health behaviors of professionally active nurses. Aim. The aim of the study was to evaluate health behaviors presented by professionally active nurses. Material and methods. 103 nurses were included in the study. The method of diagnostic survey was used in the paper, and the research tool was the author’s questionnaire for socio-demographic data and the Inventory of Health Behaviors. Results. Nearly 60% of the respondents declared participation in preventive examinations. 70% of nurses put the family first in the hierarchy of life values. In the group of professionally active nurses, the value of health behavior index was 80.52 points. Conclusion. The greatest value in the life of nurses was the family right after health and work. Nurses declared regular participation in preventive screenings. They presented the average level of health behaviors. The nurses’ educational level positively affected the level of their health behavior. Nurses living in the countryside showed a higher level of health behavior. Nurses with chronic condition presented a lower level of health behaviors than their healthy colleagues.
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The theoretical framework for this research is the sociology of leisure and the sociology of health. Because sedentary behaviour (of employees) is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject. Moreover, sedentary behaviour in the workplace seems to be an important topic for the future. The general aim of the research is to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches for promoting health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experiences in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across Europe. Two methods of qualitative research were used. The first was the method of expert judges. By way of direct interview, the statements of nine persons were collected, all of whom were recognised as competent judges. The second method was the analysis of the content of the literature (quality method). Using the computer program Atlas.ti, the respondents and their answers were examined. Most of the indications (89%) concerned responses indicating physical activity. In general, the experts are quite physically active and keep a healthy (in their opinion) diet. They have both knowledge and appropriate skills in physical education. They point to the growing interest of younger academics in health and fitness, which may be associated with trends in popular culture, such as a sporty lifestyle, the cult of the body, various healthy diets and supplements, etc., that are becoming the universal fashion. The aim of this work was to provide a platform for exchange on effective approaches to the promotion of health-enhancing physical activity among workers, to learn from experience in different European countries and to promote the most effective approaches across the region. Because the sedentary behaviour of employees is a relevant new research area with important health risks, we decided to focus our attention on this subject.
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The main aim of this paper is to present recent knowledge about the assessment and evaluation of low frequency noise and infrasound close to the threshold of hearing and the potential effects on human health. Low frequency noise generated by air flowing over a moving car with the open window is chosen as a source of noise. The noise within the interior of the car and its effects on a driver’s comfort at different velocities is analyzed. An open window at high velocity behaves as a source of specifically strong tonal low frequency noise which is annoying. The interior noise of a passenger car was measured under different conditions; while driving on normal highway and roadways. First, an octave-band analysis was used to assess the noise level and its impact on the driver’s comfort. Second, a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis was used for the detection of tonal low frequency noise. Finally, the paper suggests possibilities for scientifically assessing and evaluating low frequency noise but not only for the presented source of the sound.
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Zgodnie z definicją WHO, zdrowie jest stanem zupełnej pomyślności fizycznej, umysłowej i społecznej, a nie jedynie brakiem choroby lub ułomności. Czynnikami, które w znacznym stopniu determinują zdrowie człowieka są zachowania zdrowotne (w tym m.in. aktywność fizyczna). Celem badań była ocena zależności pomiędzy subiektywną oceną stanu zdrowia a aktywnością fizyczną wśród młodych kobiet i mężczyzn w wieku do 30 roku życia. Narzędzie badawcze składało się z dwóch części – pierwszą stanowił autorski kwestionariusz ankiety dotyczący samooceny stanu zdrowia i opisu podejmowanej aktywności fizycznej, natomiast drugą – kwestionariusz Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT). Badanie przeprowadzone zostało w okresie luty–kwiecień 2015 r. Wzięło w nim udział 368 osób. Osoby aktywne fizycznie wyżej oceniają stan swojego zdrowia niż osoby nieaktywne fizyczne. Samoocena stanu zdrowia wśród mężczyzn jest wyższa niż wśród kobiet. Osoby aktywne fizyczne. częściej są szczęśliwe i pełne energii oraz rzadziej odczuwają zmęczenie.
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According to the WHO definition, good health is a state of complete physical, social and mental well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. The factors that significantly determine the human health status are health-related behaviors (including physical activity). The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-assessment of health status and physical activity among young women and men under 30 years of age. Research tool consisted of two parts – an author-made questionnaire for self-assessment of health status and description of physical activity and Brief Inventory of Thriving (BIT). The research was conducted in the period February–April in 2015 on a group of 368 respondents. Physically active people better assess their health status than physical inactive persons. Self-assessment of health status is higher among men than among women. Physically active people are more often happy and full of energy and less often feel fatigue.
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Content available remote HEALTH AS AN ECONOMIC RESOURCE IN THE CONTEXT OF CONTEMPORARY THEORIES
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The article investigates theoretical viewpoints’ development towards health of an individual as an economic resource, which at present acquires one of the most essential meanings contributing to the economic development of the country. It also explains an idea that the health resource is a source of two other the most important economic resources – labor and knowledge. The specific features of health resource as an independent social-economic category are presented and the periodization of economic theory human-centered conceptions is provided.
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The purpose of this article is to show the need for recreation in the context of foreign leisure trips of administrative staff of selected universities in zachodniopomorskie (West Pomeranian) voivodship. It is an essential element of health behavior of each individual. This work shows the awareness of people in relation to the organization of the rest – taking into account both the destination, means of transport, as well as hotel animations. With regard to the aspect of health, attention should be paid to proper preparation for the trip.
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The article presents modern approaches to sports and recreation activity in the educational institutions. It is stressed that the involvement of the general public to the mass popularization of sports and a healthy lifestyle is provided according to the Concept of the National Programme on the development of physical culture and sports for 2012-2016. A complex of concrete measures aimed at creating conditions for physical education and sport in all types of schools was proposed during this period of time. The main approaches to the organization of sports and recreation activity in the educational system, particularly in pre-school, primary and secondary school, during extracurricular activity and camps in the summer recreation for children have been singled out in the article. It is determined that the proper organization of physical education and recreation activity and innovative programs will not only contribute to harmonious all-round development of the individual, but also the preservation and strengthening of mental, physical and social health. The authors have distinguished the following approaches to the organization of sports and recreation activity in education: improving the legal framework of physical culture and sports; increase in the educational establishments of all types amount of motor activity per week; wide involvement of parents to nurture a healthy baby; gradual upgrade of logistics facilities of physical culture and sports; promotion of healthy lifestyles and overcome public indifference to the state of health of the nation; widespread adoption of social advertising of various aspects of a healthy lifestyle in all media and ban all direct and hidden forms of advertising of alcohol, tobacco and so on. The presented study is an attempt to summarize the current views of the scientists on the issue of sports and recreation activitiy at schools. In particular, it is determined that the essence of sports and recreation activity is the formation of a healthy lifestyle and harmonious development of a personality. Thus the question of finding the best areas of sports and recreation activity with children, students and young people is a testament to the relevance and appropriateness of our study. Prospects for future research are to highlight the problems of sports and recreation activity in public organizations of sports orientation.
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