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EN
The very title of the article contains a clear reference to the concept of Pierre Hadot, for whom the category of exercices spirituels was best suited to the description of philosophy in Antiquity, though even he regarded it as something of more than just historical significance. A diagnosis of modern reflection on human nature, presented e.g. by Lindsay Waters, suggests that “spiritual exercises” in their existential dimension, “exercises” not limited to thinking drills but requiring wholesale commitment and having such consequences, provide perhaps the best description of what the humanities are and should be. Augustine’s Tolle, lege interpreted in this manner is used with reference to Pavel Muratov’s Images of Italy.
EN
The published article analyses the plundering site in the ancient world warfare. During the expeditions, the grain fields were the main object of interest of the troops in the first place. The plunderers not only used them as their own supply, but we can also see efforts to devastate the hinterland of the enemy side behind their subsequent habitual destruction, which also constituted the usual framework of coercion in an attempt to make them submit or to challenge their army to a direct confrontation. Last but not least, interventions in the water regime of rivers or canals could have had a similar effect, in order to prevent enemy movement by flooding their surroundings.
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Content available remote The Verse Style of Jiri Karasek's Second Period
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EN
The article considers works from Jiri Karásek ze Lvovic's second period of writing verse - namely the collections 'Endymion' (1909) and 'Ostrov vyhnancu' (Isle of the Banished, 1912). It aims primarily to describe his style in this period and compare it with his style from the previous one. In his second period, Karásek (1871-1951) turned completely away from the verse libre that had been typical of his first period and his style became fully harmonized. The harmonizing tendency influenced his return to the brilliantly conceived sonnet, which predominated mainly in 'Endymion'. In this period his style also shifted to the use of stylization approaches. His poems from the first period considered the theme of the 'unknown brothers', kindred spirits of the persona, of a being proclaiming the same ideals as he did. In the second period these persona were made strikingly concrete by means of poems stylized as the characters' own utterances. In these utterances, moreover, a relationship began, nearly of self-identification (or self-stylization), with an unspecified lyrical subject. These new poems are distinguished chiefly by a clear dramatic quality and are reminiscent of monologues for the stage. An important shift took place in his echoes of Antiquity. Whereas in his first period everyday life in Antiquity predominated in a chronotopical stylization, in Karásek's second period Classical mythology predominates. A shift also took place in his general perception of historical periods. Compared to his earlier adoration of historical chronotopes, his work in this period (particularly in 'Ostrov vyhnancu') expresses a striking antagonism between the individual and the milieu. Apart from this complex description the article also concentrates on several topics stemming directly from the shifts in Karásek's style, which took place in the second period. It presents a broad picture of the motif of the androgyne in his work, and suggests several analogies between his style and androgyny. It describes in detail two of Karásek's central conceptions of Classical Antiquity - everyday Antiquity and mythological Antiquity - and compares them. Since the influence of Jaroslav Vrchlický (1853-1912) is often emphasized in assessments of Karásek's second period as a poet, the article also compares the styles of the two writers, pointing out certain similarities and differences.
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Content available remote Starozytne postawy wobec powinnosci medycznych
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EN
Rational medicine, i.e. the one which is not an attempt to conciliate forces evil to man, was shaped in Ancient Greece simultaneously with the birth of philosophical thinking. And in its beginning it was indistinguishable from philosophy because any in tellectual activity of man aiming at understanding something was philosophy. Even when within the frames of philosophy particular disciplines – astronomy, physics, biology, and also medicine – started to be aware of their autonomy, they still remained essentially philosophical. Ancient medicine is philosophical medicine because all its findings are understood in a philosophical context – deep conviction of philosophers that the universe is an orderly, proportional, and harmonic entirety is transmitted from physicians to patients. Such is the source of medical theory, according to which good health is a harmony of elements in human body, as well as subsequent conviction about peculiar isomorphism of macrocosm and microcosm. The only real indicator of autonomy of medicine from philosophy was a necessary element of realism regarding particular human being who was supposed to be effectively aided in his sickness by concrete means. Philosophy did not have to care about reality so philosophy could bend reality to its speculated theories without having to verify them in practice. However, natural empirism of medicine could not influence philosophy as medicine itself did not possess, and will not possess for a long time, so big scientific database that it could be an influencing factor on philosophica settlements. Ethics will become the common ground for mutual relations between medicine and philosophy. And on this ground a particular analogy between treating human body and healing human soul will be settled, an analogy incomparably more useful for philosophy than for medicine.
EN
The author defends the thesis according to which the Middle Ages time is an essential element in the creation of our modern cultural identity due to the fact that just this intermediate epoch prepares conditions that permit in Modern Times to absorb the legacy of Antiquity. It is stressed that only now, having liberated ourselves from the modernist attitude toward the Middle Ages, we start to understand their role in our cultural and intellectual development.
EN
The paper focuses on the bishop´s position in his Christian community and his position within the Roman Empire, especially after Constantine's turn. The function of the bishop, his position and his powers gradually changed in the Late Antiquity, which was also reflected in the imperial legislation. To some extent, the bishops represented state authorities, especially the judicial ones, and took care of the poor and the needy. As the economic power of the Christian communities increased, the bishops became important members of the local honorability. Nevertheless, their main role remained the pastoral care and administration of the Christian community.
Konštantínove listy
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2023
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tom 16
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nr 2
163 - 185
EN
Minor references to St Clement of Rome (the 1st century AD), the third successor of St Peter, in popular, educational, and scholarly writings are mostly related to the theme of the mission and legacy of Sts Constantine-Cyril and Methodius, who brought his relics to Papal Rome in the year 867/868. Thereafter, his figure and legacy have been treated in various writings on the basis of the so-called First and Second Letters of Clement to the Corinthians, other Pseudo-Clementine writings, or various hagiographical texts about the given saint. However, the topic discussed has not yet been debated in the light of the documents of the 20th-century Popes, and has also been insufficiently examined and compared in the context of the (Catholic) Church of the periods of Antiquity and the 20th century. Various aspects of the personality and work of the aforementioned first-century Apostolic Father, as well as other related and intertwined particular themes or aspects, can be found in 22 Papal documents. They are the apostolic constitutions, encyclicals, apostolic exhortations and letters, as well as the speeches of the following four Popes of the 20th century: Pius XI (1922 – 1939), John XXIII (1958 – 1963), Paul VI (1963 – 1978) and John Paul II (1978 – 2005).
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Content available remote HIC SUNT LEONES ALEBO KTO SA BOJÍ ANTIKY
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EN
This study outlines the tradition of translation of ancient Greek drama in Slovakia. Most of the existing translations were made with a view to being staged by Slovak professional theatres, which had influenced their final literary form. There is a difference between translation for a stage and translation for reading purposes only. The text of a drama is an essential medium for the director as the creator of a theatre performance; as a result, it must meet the requirement of currency and the ability to communicate with the audience. An out-of-date or unsuitable translation may therefore pose a problem. The study uses excerpts from the translations of Sophocles’ Antigone and Oedipus the King to demonstrate ways of approaching the translation of such texts and the conventions that are connected with them.
EN
The Danube was one of the most important rivers in ancient geography. Its upper and middle course divided the Romans from the tribes to the north, while its lower course separated the Greek world from the Scythians. In ancient thought it was not only a real natural barrier, but also the boundary of the oikumené, the meeting place between the civilized world and the mythical north. The study considers the phases of the process of discovering the Danube from its first mentions until Augustus, when its whole length was known as a result of Roman expansion. The whole process of exploration is evaluated on the basis of ancient sources, epigraphy and archaeological finds. Relevant events are mentioned, and the sources of various ideas and traditions are analysed.
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