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EN
Inspired by Bogdan Balcer's comments, published in 'Archeologia Polski', I would like to address the issues concerning my work brought up in this publication. In the Polish literature, the possibility and potential scale of the use of flint tools by post-Neolithic communities has been argued ever since the 1930s. A summary of the discussion was contributed by J. Lech, among others. The accretion of new sources and verification of extant collections have put into an entirely new light the issue of how Bronze-Age populations, not only in the eastern territories of Poland, made use of siliceous rocks. Balcer's view that the issue of 'Early Bronze Age' flint working should be perceived in a spectrum much broader than that proposed by the present author - that is, through the prism of four conventional tools: knives, sickle inserts, bifacial points and arrowheads - merits full support. The original conception was to limit the selection to bifacial 'sickles' and 'daggers points'. I have treated Balcer's suggestion to include axes in the source base as a research postulate. Their classification would demand analyses exceeding the assumed priority of bifaciality. Extremely variegated morphological and metrical features of these products used in the Lesser Poland (Malopolska) region from the Middle Neolithic onward enjoin a verification of the classification accepted to date (including similar tools, like chisels, primitive axes, primitive axe-shaped and hoes for mining). In a consideration of the chronology of the smallish four-sided axes, one needs merely to keep in mind the parallel 'corded Ware Culture' forms of type Id and II after J. Machnik (1966), as well as the 'Funnel Beaker Culture' variant C after B. Balcer (1975), the small 'Globular Amphorae Culture' pieces and the Zlota Culture type 'b' after Z. Krzak (1961), in order to be persuaded regarding the imperfections of such divisions. Returning to the polemics, it is impossible to accept Balcer's opinion that the bifacial tools I had analyzed were removed from the context of contemporary products. It should be emphasized that the two most numerous of the analyzed forms, that is, bifacial points and sickle-shaped knives, are deprived of this context in over 93% and close to 96% of the cases respectively. In the remaining cases, an analysis of non-flint material was essential for a determination of this context. Balcer's further views concerning this context are equally difficult to accept, for he is inclined to include a variety of flint tools from the Early Bronze Age, as well as later ones, independently of the nature of the finds. The listing clearly indicates that a number of 'Early Bronze' elements do not find continuation in the flint tool production of the Trzciniec and Lusatian cultures (J. Libera, in print). Balcer's postulate regarding a comprehensive study of Early Bronze Age flint working is a definitely premature undertaking in my opinion. It should be preceded by comprehensive monographic presentations of sites of key significance for the issues brought up here, as well as regional summaries that will permit trends to be discerned in this highly specific 'terminal' flint working throughout the Bronze and Early Iron Ages. The spotty record of publications, on flint working in particular, concerning the Corded Ware Culture, makes it very difficult to understand the stylistic changes that began in the terminal Neolithic and which were construed as a 'technological breakthrough'. In my study, I had deliberately avoided any issues connected with this breakthrough, as well as with the distinctive 'Mierzanowice industry', specifically because the analysis had covered only four elements. To recapitulate, despite considerable progress in fieldwork and studies of Bronze Age (and Early Iron Age) flint working, many of Balcer's postulates from more than thirty years ago on the state and quality of sources on flint tool manufacture for this period remain in force. Despite greatly improved perception and specialist studies on this group of artifacts, many issues, frequently of key significance, still await a satisfactory explanation.
EN
This article presents the current state of research into the cultural differentiation in the Polish Carpathians during the Bronze and Early Iron Age. It uses the six-phase chronological frame developed by Marek Gedl (1998). The research material justifies the division of the area of the Polish Carpathians into three zones. Zone A, to the west of the River Dunajec, is primarily oriented towards Orawa and Spisz, while maintaining strong links with the north. The central Zone B is closely linked with settlements of the southern type, which kept penetrating there from the Ondawska Upland. The succession of cultures is analogous to that on the Slovak side of the mountains: Füzesabony, Otomni and Gava cultures followed by Scytho-Thracian and Celtic elements. Zone C, ie. the eastern part of the region, is conspicuously different. Links with the north (Trzciniec and Tarnobrzeg sub-cultures of the Lusation culture) predominate, although there are also some, hard to define, eastern and south-eastern elements, which may have spread along the outer, eastern rim of the Carpathians. Another conclusion that can be drawn from the data under review is that the area of the Polish Carpathians did not form a distinct cultural province in the Bronze and Early Iron Age. It was rather a battleground of northern and southern influences, with the latter appearing to be stronger.
EN
In the first part of the article author critically evaluated methods used in estimation of functioning time of praehistoric cemeteries. As examples served cemeteries of Tarnobrzeg Group of Lusatian Culture Circle. In the second part of the article the analysis of detailed archaeological and anthropological data according to spatial distribution of graves was shown. In a consequence of this a time of functioning of separate groups of graves on various cemeteries was estimated as well as the time of usage of the whole cemeteries.
EN
Interpretation of prehistoric human representations, portrayal of human qualities or of the human body itself has long been at the core of archaeological research. Clay statuettes of the Bronze Age are a specific type of source to decode and reconstruct clothing and jewellery fashion. New discoveries and recent studies allow a more accurate dating of these objects into the Late – Final Bronze Age (BD–HB). Most of the figurines presented in this paper were found during archaeological surveys, what makes both the exact location and dating considerably certain. A small part of the collection has long been known to archaeologists, current analysis might shed new light on both their interpretation and dating.
EN
Weapons and especially the combination of different types of weapons in graves usually serve as a starting point for considerations regarding armament and fighting style. On the basis of regional or temporal differences of the weapons present in the graves and their combination, changes in the way of fighting are deduced. In addition, quantitative differences in the equipment of graves with weapons are often used by others to try to prove differentiated gradations in the social rank of the buried. Apart from the fact that at least some of the weapons can be ceremonial or ceremonial weapons or – especially arrowheads or spears – hunting or competition weapons and not the weapons actually or primarily used in battle, it is problematic to draw direct conclusions from the graves´ inventory about the existence of weapons in this world.
Študijné zvesti
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2020
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tom 67
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nr 2
207 - 216
EN
The paper presents an exceptional skeletal material bearing an implicit information on diseases and living conditions of the Early Bronze Age society in the territory of present-day Slovakia. Archaeological research in Ludanice-Mýtna Nová Ves, performed by the Institute of Archaeology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Nitra under the supervision of Jozef Bátora, revealed the cemetery that had been used by two consecutive Early Bronze Age populations of the Nitra and the Únětice cultures (2200–1900 cal. BC). A total of 606 graves were examined. Skeletal remains buried in Grave 501 were different from others: unusual bone changes were observed in the skeleton, especially as regards the bony socket for the femoral head of the dislocated left femur. The socket was located at the posterior side of the ilium, suggesting development of neo-acetabulum. The finding represents the first paleopathological case of its kind from prehistoric Slovakia, its uniqueness lying in providing new information about health status, living conditions, as well as interpersonal relationships in Early Bronze Age populations.
EN
The aim of the submitted study is to determine physical characteristics on selected groups of glass beads from the Early Bronze Age (HA) and the Hallstatt period (HC, HD) from northern, southwestern and southeastern Slovakia by means of non-destructive methods. We obtained data on the character of the glass beads’ quality using a binocular magnifier, microscope, Raman spectroscopy, absorbtion spectroscopy (UV-VIS-NIR), The analyzed collection of beads (from the burial grounds in Chotín, Ždaňa, Ilava, the cave settlement of Háj and the hillfort in Smolenice) contained various colour variants of glass beads (blue, green, yellow and black; brown clay or clay/ceramic beads are reported too) as well as various shapes. From the total number of analyzed beads (161 exemplars), clay or combined clay/ceramic beads are most frequent (74 exemplars). 16 exemplars were made of amber, one was made of another material and 70 exemplars were glass beads. Basic physical quantities were studied on black, blue, green and yellow glass beads.
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EN
Progression of pastoral economy of the young Aeneolithic societies of the north-western Inner Carpathians grew also on the background of external influences. It eventually resulted in a high value of a herd which was probably formally expressed in the increased number of zoomorphic sculptures. It is the part of the database of finds of small zoomorphic statues from this period and territory which suggests similarity with Trans-Carpathian Eurasian finds. Together with the presence of individuals or groups of eastern origin, the increase in the number of new long wool sheep species originally bred in the Near East and transported to the territory of the Inner Carpathians at the end of the old prehistory can be considered a consequence of eastern impulses in relation to the higher frequency of small animal sculptures. The value of the domesticated animal intensified the process of social status, preferred the owner of the herd and the service unit and was deeply reflected in the abstract world of Baden autochtones.
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tom 60
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nr 2
285 – 342
EN
The study is focused on the assessment of the production and occurrence of bronze knives in the territory of the present-day Slovakia and their typological-chronological classification. The set of the 99 whole, though more often fragmentarily preserved, analysed exemplars is a significant part of the material content of the central Danubian and Carpathian culture, and especially of the Urnfield cultures. A detailed analysis showed, however, an almost unexpectedly non-proportional representation of the analysed kind of products of bronze industry within the relics of Lusatian, central Danubian, south-eastern cultures of urnfields, with surprisingly lower occurrence in such a rich area of developed metallurgy as it existed especially in the Piliny, Kyjatice and Gáva cultures. The scale of finds clearly documents the representation of knives of all basic central European typological groups, made up by exemplars with full, frame, tongue, plate and thorn handle. In the study they are classified into twenty-five types and further variants. A part of Slovak finds displays certain formal differences which, with few exceptions (proposed types Smolenice, Čaka and Horná Seč), and also as a consequence of the finds´ frequent fragmentariness and the absence of a more significant closed whole, did not lead to the creation of new independent types. From the very beginning of the occurrence of bronze knives there were close contacts with south-eastern, and especially with western, part of central Europe. On the contrary, uniqueness can be determined only to a certain extent with the finds typical for a broader central-eastern part of central Europe, or, the Carpathian Basin – so unique in many other products of bronze metallurgy. Due to a favourable situation in the processing of bronze knives in central Europe, Slovak finds could also be classified and compared with knives from other geographical areas nowadays belonging to the territory of Bohemia, Moravia, Germany, Poland, and Austria. The assessed finds inventory is significant also for the occurrence of ten casting moulds documenting local production of knives, especially in the territory of the Slovak branch of Lusatian culture. Of extraordinary importance are especially the moulds from the burial ground in Vyšný Kubín, laid over the urns with assumed graves of specialised metal founders.
EN
This paper presents the results of the investigation of macroscopic plant remains from the multicultural site in Smroków, Slomniki commune. The features credited to the Funnel Beaker and Baden cultures contained remains of cereals: emmer wheat Triticum dicoccon, einkorn T. monococcum and barley Hordeum vulgare. Features from the Funnel Beaker-Baden group yielded emmer T. dicoccon and common millet Panicum miliaceum. A pit ascribed to the Trzciniec culture, provided imprints of barley Hordeum vulgare and emmer wheat Triticum dicoccon. Charcoals samples contained remains of oak Quercus, Scots pine Pinus sylvestris and birch Betula.
EN
This article has been written in response to J. Dabrowski's and M. Mogielnicka-Urban's polemics (2004) with certain theses presented in my book (A. Mierzwinski 2003), in which I refer to a syncretic model of culture. I had discussed this model in detail with regards to the social and ritual aspects of production in the Oder river basin in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages. In the present article, I have shown the futility of the debaters' attempt to question the possibility of using fingerprint marks on pottery for the study of the social identification of the pot makers. Consequently, their intent, which was to question the validity of the theory that the round discs were produced by men, proved unsuccessful. Neither were they able to discredit the theory that these discs could have been used as casting driers. The debaters did not present any arguments to substantiate their reservations concerning the specific modeling technique. The allegation that I have undertaken to reconstruct production and trade relations is baseless. From this point of view, one would rather say there is no motivation on my part to undertake such investigations. It is because I am a declared constructivist and far from any Marxist categorization. In the outcome, the assumptions and theses presented in my work, both general and specific, have not suffered in the face of these objections. This is due not only to the weakness of the latter, but also because the confrontation concerns divergent research attitudes, namely, traditional (empirical) archaeology versus contextual archaeology.
Študijné zvesti
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2021
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tom 68
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nr 2
261 - 281
EN
The aim of this study is present primarily the results of archaeobotanical analysis from a late bronze urn burial cemetery site Trenčianske Teplice-Kaňová. Despite the extensive finds of the urns from urn-field burials in the whole Carpathian Basin region, the application of the archeobotanical methods and research is still marginalized. In the light of this situation, we would like to point out the interpretation possibilities of archaeobotanical material as it is (was) common in the settlement sites. Thanks to the interdisciplinary approach on this site, we were able to examine the relationships between carbonized botanical material (including seeds from the cultivated crops, wild species and charcoals) and the burial practices in (certain) concrete time and in given (certain) burial ground. From the results of the detailed analyses, we were able to identify and demonstrate the specific features of the funeral rite that are associated with the occurrence of charred plant macro-remains from the graves.
EN
The article polemizes with theses presented in A. Mierzwinski's study (2003), in which the author discusses a new conception of production relations and trade organization in the Lusatian culture based on studies of pottery preserving human fingerprints originating from the settlement at Kunice. The present authors put into doubt the possibility of determining people's age and gender based on the size of the fingerprints impressed in the clay, this being contrary to dactylographic data and the results of experimental studies on pottery decoration. By the same, they reject the view that these ornamented pieces, believed by the author of the controversial study to have been made by men, were used in metallurgical production, especially as neither the suggestions regarding their separate method of production nor the efforts to explain their function in the casting process have withstood critical analysis. There is no straightforward proof for such an explanation (although one would expect substantial evidence), a fact that Mierzwinski does not believe to be of significance. In consequence, the hypothetical reconstruction of work relations and trade exchange proposed in Mierzwinski's book cannot be regarded as justified.
EN
The number of studied and described sites from the Bronze Age from the territory of northeastern Poland is very small. The latest study of residual materials from the older period of the Bronze Age dates as far back as 80 years ago. This article constitutes therefore a significant improvement of the state of research in this region. Unfortunately the settlement model of the Bronze Age in northeastern Poland and the briefly functioning, small settlements from this time, which may even have been mere camps, do not provide a lot of materials, almost exclusively pottery. There were also two cremation graves probably connected to this settlement. The occurrence of single cremation burials in the direct vicinity of the settlement is similar to the situation observed in the Trzciniec sites from northern Mazovia. The features of the pottery items from Góra Strekowa suggest stronger links with the regions neighboring with Podlasie - western Belarus - rather than with well-explored Trzciniec sites from other regions of Poland. Faunal materials and vegetal macro-remains were also studied in the case of the settlement in Góra Strekowa.
EN
Tel Rekhesh located in the vicinity of Mt. Tabor, north Israel, is one of the two largest sites in the Lower Eastern Galilee and the only site that has a long settlement history of over 3,000 years. The excavation of the site was commenced in March 2006 by the Expedition for the Archaeology of the Land of Israel. The main aim of the excavation was to investigate the settlement history of the site in order to supply a lack of archaeological data for the Eastern Lower Galilee. Four main areas were excavated in order to achieve this aim: 1) the lower terrace; 2) the north-eastern edge of the acropolis ('gate' area); 3) the south-western and south-eastern edges of the acropolis; and 4) the southern slope. Approximately 820 square meters (fifty-one squares) were excavated over five seasons.
EN
The article presents a fortuitous dicovery of a votive hoard of 192 ornaments made of bronze and 3 glass beads from Skorka, site 32, Krajenka commune in the southern part of Pomerania The hoard was probably deposited in the 2nd half of the Vth period of the Bronze Age. The majority of described remains one can classify in frames of the Nordic culture circle.
EN
When it comes to Bronze Age, the archaeological site Gánovce is mainly known due to significant finds collection from the filling of a ritual well, which was excavated in the location Hrádok during the travertine exploitation. There is less information available about the settlement agglomerations, which surrounded and was connected to this locality of Central-European importance. One of them was situated in the close proximity on the eastern edge of the site Hrádok, at the location Za stodolami. Most of the archaeological finds, which were there acquired by several surface prospections during 2019–2020 can be dated to the end of Early Bronze Age and fully reflect the traditions of Otomani-Füzesabony Cultural Complex. In addition to ceramic, a significant collection of ground stone artefacts, pottery, and bone tools have been documented. Among those were identified two fragmentary preserved moulds made of stone, which were analysed by SEM-EDX method confirming the presence of melted metal. Thus they reliably prove the local metallurgical production, which along with the other craft activities could have significant economic meaning for the community inhabiting the surroundings of the central site Gánovce-Hrádok.
EN
The content of this paper are the new hoards from central Slovakia. 39 bronze objects come from 4 locations on a hill side. Hoard 1 consisted of long pins of type Hradec and Malá Vieska. Hoard 2 consisted of bracelets and spiral rings. On next two places were found 4 pins together and 1 separately. Horizon BD1 is represented by the hoard of circular jewels; all pin hoards belong to BD2, they are the oldest Lusatian Culture hoards in Slovakia. Units of HA1 with mixed content are representing the older component. Unusual stone facework on the hoard 2 leads us to the habit used for building of burial mounds. Relation with graves is shown by some examples from the Early and Middle Bronze Age in Bohemia (in stone facework as well), south-western Germany and Slovakia up to HA2, or HA2/HB1. The closest category of jewel hoards is of type Uriu-Ópályi in Maramureş and in Upper Tisa area. The connection with the other world or the treasure for the deceased is probable. The pins of type Malá Vieska with the head in the shape of a poppy head and their length as well are very similar to the poppy plant, reaching the height 1 – 1.6 m. The importance of this symbol with regard to its multiple meaning and the use of the seeds as food and the opium alkaloid from the unripe capsule of the poppy seed in healing and healing cults can be only anticipated. In the Slovak folk tradition the poppy was the symbol of prosperity. It had protective effect against deceased and witches. It was unsuitable for practical use because of its great length. What was their purpose and if they are really pins is an open question. The suggestions that they were weapons, or used for therapy and tattoo cannot be confirmed. For the profane use of the find 1 from Moštenica can speak new pins, probably wrapped and bound together, from the vicinity of the road, which was from Middle Ages known as Via Magna. For cultic reasons speak the location on the hill side, according to the other finds it can be called ‘the sacred mountain’.
EN
The study evaluates the bronze hoard, found in the cadastre of village Ilija, dist. Banská Štiavnica at the Lusatian culture hill-fort in Sitno. It was discovered during the excavation in 1986 under the floor of a dwelling in the trench I/86. It is a closed find that contained, in addition to the organic remains, a bronze belt with chased decoration, eight spiral bracelets, three twisted torcs, a spiral ring, hair trimmings, a pin, a leather belt closure with bronze patches, closed cast iron eyelets and with an application in the shape of a spectacle pendant, a sand-glass shape pendant and two fragments of torcs (?) ending with eyelets. The hoard is dated back to the turn of the stages HA 2/HB 1, most likely up to the stage HB 1. The study is divided into eight chapters. They include the history of the research, details about state of research at Sitno and archaeological context of the bronze hoard in the trench I/86, in depth 160 cm. The chapters dedicated to the results of the analyses of organic materials, preserved in the hoard, as well as paleobotanical results bring surprising findings, illustrating the technological processes of the production of the leather belt closure and the nature of the economic activity of the contemporary Sitno’s inhabitants, as well as the natural environment of the micro-region. The hill-fort at Sitno itself is presented as a centre of administrative, production, comercial and cultic centre of a supraregional character. The hill-fort’s inhabitants did not live in isolation, but kept extensive business contacts even with distant areas east and west. Evidence of these contacts is found in the pottery of the Čaka and Gáva cultures within the earlier stage of settlement, since the turn of the stages HA /HB a strong interference from the area of the Kyjatice culture is being noticed, as well as the influence of the Podolí culture.
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Content available remote POHREBISKÁ LUŽICKEJ KULTÚRY V JASENICI A SEDMEROVCI
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EN
Burial grounds of the Lusatian culture in Jasenica and Sedmerovec were researched almost 50 years ago. Detailed analyses of the burial ritual (urn graves, pit graves, cenotaphic graves) and the material culture (pottery, bronze, stone, iron, clay and glass artefacts) date the burials to the stages BD-HB in Jasenica and BD/HA 1-HB in Sedmerovec. The results of processing these burial grounds partially supplement our knowledge about the development of the Lusatian culture in the middle Váh basin and its contacts with other areas in the Early and Late Bronze Age. In addition, they document a shared East-Moravian-Slovak art.
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