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Content available remote The Ecological Amplitude of Acorus calamus Young Shoots Under Water Level Gradient
This paper analysed the influence of the gradient of water levels (-54–120 cm) on Acorus calamus (A. calamus) young shoots in terms of their growth characteristics (germination rate, basal stem, height and biomass), leaf characteristics (number, area and moisture content), chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence parameters (Fv/ Fm, ETR, qP and qN) and other indicators. Based on a Gaussian model, we determined and quantified the response relationship between A. calamus young shoots and water level. The results showed that the ecological amplitude of water level for A. calamus young shoots was -52.3−141.8 cm, and the optimum range was -3.5−69.3 cm; a variety of indicators suggested that the optimum depth for A. calamus young shoots was from18.8 cm to 49.6 cm. The A. calamus seedling growth characteristics which were sensitive to changes in the water level were the germination rate and biomass. The germination rate was more sensitive to the submergence water depth, but the biomass was obviously influenced by the groundwater depth. Therefore, the A. calamus could be a suitable species for ecological restoration of land/inland water ecotones in lakes, rivers and reservoirs.
All morphological parts of sweet flag (calamus), particularly rhizomes are used not only as a herbal material, but also in confectioner and cosmetic industry. Both quantity and quality of the material which may be obtained exclusively from natural stands are determined by the fungi accompanying the plant’s vegetation. Hence, in the years 2005−2006 research was conducted to determine the diversity of mycobiota which induce chlorosis and necrosis of calamus leaves. It was found that phyllospherae of calamus is colonized by 24 taxa. Ramularia aromatica and Ascochyta acori were the two most often isolated monophagous agents of necrosis. Polyphagous facultative parasites included Fusarium sporotrichioides and Epiccocum nigrum, Alternaria alteranta and A. tenuissima. It is also important that there was the discovery of the presence of Athelia rolfsii and Fusarium incarnatum which are polyphagous species causing destruction of the tissue in tropical and subtropical climate. Due to biochemical activity of most of the isolated species and their ability to induce production of toxins, the content of active substances in calamus may be reduced and consequently diminishes its market value.
Echa Leśne
tom 20
nr 06
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