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EN
The present paper seeks to define the way one should proceed in order to make headway in phonological theory and phonological research. The main direction of potential progress is seen in turning the various approaches of that discipline more 'reality-oriented', primarily by restoring its close connection with phonetics. - Three maxims are presented and their enforcement illustrated. 1. The phonological description of a natural language should possibly encompass all varieties and registers of use of that language and, furthermore, should arrive at generalisations across the partial descriptions thus obtained. - 2. Description should stick to the principle of a unified code and be carried out on a procedural basis, that is, by exploring the mechanisms of operation of the phonological system. It should be formulated such that both its principled point of departure and its practial output be a non-homogeneous but common-ground phonological code of the given language (as is fully the case in Hungarian). - 3. The items of description should be confirmed by independent evidence, that is, by a strictly phonetically-based confirmation of the facts of language use. Sources of data or that confirmation may include not-quite-normative areas of language use, such as child language, slips of the tongue or linguistic deviations as in aphasia. (The present paper discusses some aspects of the lastmentioned area.)
EN
Hiatus, i.e., a heterosyllabic sequence of adjacent vowels, constitutes a dispreferred configuration in a number of languages. Some languages disallow the occurrence of hiatus altogether; others prevent some instances from arising by various means but let others surface or resolve them in some surface-phonological manner. The diverse means of avoiding hiatuses, resolving potential hiatuses, or breaking up actual ones, include elision of one or the other vowel, diphthong formation or glide formation, vowel coalescence, as well as epenthesis of a default consonant, capturing a 'floating' consonantal melody or the spread of some (consonantal) melody from one of the vowel positions flanking the empty onset position. This paper surveys the major hiatus avoidance/resolution patterns that are attested in Hungarian (these turn out to include nearly all of the logically possible patterns). In particular, elision of the first vowel (szomorR-odik 'become sad'), that of the second vowel (kocsi-Rn 'on a cart'), diphthong formation (autó 'car'), consonant epenthesis (karcsú-s-it 'make slim'), floating consonant realisation (a-z-alma 'the apple'), as well as hiatus resolution in the strict sense (fi(j)]ú 'boy') are discussed in more or less detail. In the second part of the paper, these phenomena are given an optimality theoretic analysis.
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Content available remote ACOUSTIC ANALYSIS OF POLISH HOMORGANIC STOP CLUSTER ACROSS WORD-BOUNDARY
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nr 1(5)
73-85
EN
The paper endeavours to verify an observation that Polish homorganic stop geminates straddling word boundaries are unreleased. Fifteen Polish subjects participated in the experiment, producing stop geminates in different contexts specified for the place of articulation, articulatory tempo, and voiced-voiceless distinction. The collected samples were acoustically analysed for presence or absence of the release burst. The results do no corroborate a putative unreleased status of Polish homorganic stop geminates across word boundaries. They show, however, that the frequency of released geminates strongly depends on the place of articulation, with dental /t, d/ released most frequently. Voiceless stops tend to be more readily released than voiced stops, albeit this tendency is only close to significant. Moreover, a significant impact of the tempo of articulation on the occurrence of the release burst has been demonstrated for both voiced and voiceless stops - longer utterance are conducive to unreleased realisations of geminates.
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Content available remote Já a nejá v rytmu lyriky
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EN
In this article the author seeks to define more precisely the atmosphere (the non-linear rhythm) of verse and the situation, which he sees as the unsymmetrical analysis of the basic evaluative approaches to the Ich and non-Ich. He creates a symmetrical structure of eight basic rhythmic qualities of atmosphere, and, after extensive psychosemantic research, finds 216 distinct rhythmic qualities in Czech verse. He then applies what he has discovered to a description of the atmosphere of six Czech lines, again based on his psychosemantic research into the evaluative approach.
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Content available remote GEMINATES IN SLAVONIC LANGUAGES
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nr 1(5)
257-266
EN
The article presents typological description of consonantal geminates in the Slavonic languages, especially in Polish, Belorussian and Serbian. It is a preliminary study, a part of the bigger project that aims at investigation of a scope of the geminates' occurrence in all Slavonic languages - in the project the geminates' frequency in dictionaries and texts will be found and the morphological and phonetic restrictions of their appearance will be defined. The author is going to examine the process of adaptation of the newest borrowings with geminates in different Slavonic languages to define tendencies of the development.
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Content available remote ICELANDIC VOWEL LENGTH AND GOVERNING RELATIONS IN PHONOLOGY
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EN
The present paper intends to voice a series of critical observations on the vowel length in Icelandic in the light of Government Phonology. Vowels in Modern Icelandic can be long in stressed syllables when followed by appropriate consonant combinations. A Government Phonology perspective allows us to regard the length as a metrical phenomenon with vowels being long in stressed open syllables. Accordingly, the shortness of a vowel indicates that it closes with a coda consonant. The vowel length regularity is used to study the nature of the consonant combination which follows the stressed nucleus. In line with a long standing tradition, Government Phonology maintains that the consonants which can be supported in the coda position depend on the nature of the following onset. In brief, the onset should be stronger or more complex than the coda. The Icelandic facts only partly conform to this principle. We investigate a number of cases where the predictions are not borne out and where paradoxes emerge. The rhyme-onset governing domain is contrasted with the interonset relationship and partly also with branching onsets. It is argued that the classical formulation of the complexity condition does not provide a fully reliable tool for establishing the relations that adjacent consonants contract.
EN
Especially in the recent years, a considerable number of foreign words has emerged in the Slovak media and literature, among them many originating in languages using other than Latin-based scripts. These words often appear in variable shapes, apparently without any consistency. The article tackles the chaos existing in the transcription of Arabic words for the Slovak media and popularisation texts and suggests a set of rules for this purpose, trying to preserve the maximum of the original language phonology and, at the same time, to make the resulting form as simple as possible, either for printing or for reading. To avoid ambiguities arising from the use of grapheme clusters such as 'th', the proposed rules sacrifice a limited number of phonemes, viz. the Arabic underscored t and d, which graphically merge into t and d respectively. Similar is the fate of the so-called emphatic consonants, usually transliterated with 'dotted' characters. The article puts a special emphasis on preserving the phonological quality and quantity of Arabic vowels, both of which can be easily rendered in the written Slovak language. The same holds true for the quantity of Arabic consonants, if present. Attached to the article is a list of the most frequent Arabic proper names occuring in the field of politics.
EN
The paper provides the description of two phonological systems, one with a categorical rule, the other with a free-variation pattern, both concerning the use of linking 'r'. First, it shows that free variation may be captured by the Local Dynamic Reranking concept. The concept does not presume the existence of separate constraint rankings within a given accents, it merely recognizes locally fuzzy areas being determined by sociolinguistic and other factors. Thus free variation (the existence of separate, apparently conflicting variants: rhoticity-nonrhoticity) may not only be described but also explained within a single theoretical framework. Obviously a lot remains to be done in the field of how statically undetermined (neutralized) rankings are dynamically ranked and what causes the fuzziness of local neutralized areas within constraint rankings. Second aside from the explanation of the phenomenon of free variation, the present study attempts to avoid the arbitrariness of the choice of free variants. By combining constraints and underlying forms (floating nature) the paper shows that a given sound appears where it does but also why it is this particular sound that surfaces. It appears that with the amalgam of both markedness constraints and carefully justified possible underlying representations will one be able to come completely to terms with surface phonological variation which is so much a part of any linguistic interaction in any human language.
EN
This paper discusses the possible analyses of the behaviour of (h), //, (x) and (x' in Hungarian. In a rule-based, derivational framework, // and (x are clearly derived from(h) and (x), respectively, and therefore the main issue is how to account for the distribution of (h) vs. (x). Two types of analyses are possible: one that assumes two separate underlying segments, /h/ and /x/, and thus misses the generalisation that the two segments are in complementary distribution. The second kind of approach claims that (h) and (x) come from the same underlying segment; this type of analysis can be further divided into two subtypes depending on whether the common underlyer is claimed to be /h/ or /x/. Besides, the behaviour of these segments in voice assimilation is also discussed: they trigger but do not undergo that process. Siptar and Törkenczy (2000) suggest that by assuming a filter that disallows surface voiced dorsal fricatives, the desired result is obtained. Optimality Theory which argues that both /h/ and /x/ (as well as // and /x/, for that matter) may occur in the input and the constraint hierarchy must be such that they should always select well-formed output candidates as optimal regardless of the input. As a result of Lexicon Optimisation, non-alternating forms will have /h/ or /x/ (or // or /x/) in their underlying representation depending on (i.e., identical with) the output forms while alternating forms may have underlying /h/ or /x/ (or // or /x/) as selected by an alternation sensitive version of Lexicon Optimisation. Finally, the treatment of the behaviour of these segments in voice assimilation is quite simple in Optimality Theory if we assume a constraint prohibiting voiced dorsal fricatives that, interacting with the ones suggested by Petrova et al. (2001) to account for voice assimilation in general, is able to select.
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nr 1(7)
29-48
EN
The Voice Onset Time (VOT) introduced by Lisker and Abramson (1964) is defined as the single production dimension, the time interval between the release of a stop occlusion and the onset of vocal cord vibration. Languages generally fall into two of the three broad categories that show little cross-linguistic variation: voicing lead, short lag, and long lag. English and Polish exploit the VOT continuum differently. While English contrasts short lag vs. long lag for voiced and voiceless stops, Polish exploits voicing lead vs. short lag for its voiced and voiceless stops. This acoustic difference makes an interesting cross-linguistic scenario for perception studies in an identification paradigm. From a naturally obtained nonword keef, the author generated 8 stimuli with the VOT values of an initial stop ranging in 10ms-steps from 0 ms to +70 ms. These values span across the English VOT boundary which separates short lag (voiced) vs. long lag (voiceless) categories. In a forced-choice format, he asked two groups of subjects - native speakers of English and Polish beginner learners of English - to recognise and initial segment in each stimulus. The analysis of the results shows that the two groups performed differently in that native speakers categorised short lag into voiced /g/ and long lag into voiceless /k/. Polish subjects, on the other hand, did not exhibit a categorical shift from a voiceless into voiced category.
EN
The author presents a few observations concerning Winter's Rule, among which the most important are the following: (1) the author knows of no language in which a sound change similar to that ascribed to Balto-Slavic by Winter would have occurred; and (2) certain exceptions to Winter's Rule could be explained by what the author calls irregular sound change due to frequency.
EN
The article deals with the dialectal names of two kinds of soup, cabbage and garlic. The variety in the names of these soups reflects the fact that this item is known throughout nearly the entire territory of the national language. The names of soups form an interesting semantic and word-formational group. The core of these names consists of one-word names with the formants -ice and -ka.
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nr 1
1 – 36
EN
This paper defines ideophones as onomatopoeic words that evoke the idea of a perception mediated by different senses, the idea of a mental or physical sensation, or the idea of a state or a manner of action. The paper aims to call attention to the phonological, morphological, syntactic and semantic properties of Bengali ideophones which make them a distinct word-class in Bengali.
EN
The paper deals with the process of adopting English abbreviation PR (abbreviated from the noun phrase Public Relations) to Slovak by means of using its original English pronunciation /pi: ‚a:(r)/ as a lexeme píár/piár. The adaptation includes changes on both phonological (shift in stress pattern, shortening of a vowel length) and morphological level to adopt for Slovak inflection system (parallel use of uninflected and inflected forms). The process of adopting continues by word-formation of derived lexemes (piárový, piárovanie, piárista) and compounds (piármanažér, piárporadca) from the root piár. The author believes such tendencies help to distinguish abbreviation PR from other homographic abbreviations and compensate for the fragmentary character of original abbreviation PR. They also enable Slovak to incorporate abbreviation PR and its lexicalized pronunciation piár into Slovak lexicon.
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Content available remote Lingvistický odkaz Ľudovíta Nováka
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EN
In his paper, the author considers both the methodological and the research contribution of the Academician Ľudovít Novák (*15th October 1908 in Skalica – †27th September 1992 in Ľubochňa), the creator of modern Slovak linguistics. His work as its founder and as a philologist influenced Slovak linguistic thought. In a wider context, it was also influential especially in the field of Slovak orthoepy and phonology, that of phonological and partly morphological, but also “external”, history of the Slovak language and within the milieu of general linguistics.
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EN
This paper reviews current psycholinguistic and neuroimaging evidence on language processing with particular focus on the relationship between production and comprehension. In the first part, different methods of psycholinguistic research are introduced and examples for psycholinguistic models (production: Levelt et al. 1999; comprehension: Friederici 2002) are sketched. In the second part, the neural correlates of semantic, phonological, and syntactic processing are reviewed. For semantics and phonology there seem to be different fronto-temporal networks which are shared in production and comprehension. The results for the processing of syntactic information are not entirely conclusive. Yet the data reveal that phonological strategies may be used in syntactic tasks. This finding opens the discussion of alternative, phonology-based strategies for language processing. Such strategies are accounted for by dual-route models featuring one direct and one indirect route which often involves phonological processing. This insight leads to some tentative conclusions about remediation strategies in dyslexics with selective (e.g., phonological) deficits.
EN
The article summarizes the development of linguistic disciplines dealing with the sound aspects of speech and the Slovak language and the development of phonetic and phonological thinking in the context of the articles published in the previous ninety volumes of the Slovenská reč journal. Their authors have published several remarkable studies, professional informative contributions, discussions and polemical articles, but especially the results of their scientific research work. Among the dominant topics and discussed problems were orthoepic issues, composition, relationships and functioning of the elements of the segmental system and supra-segmental properties of speech, the functioning of quantity and its guidance by the rhythmic law, its cooperation with phonology, derivation and morphology in the context of orthography, as well as the implementation of modern research methods at the sound level of Slovak and the creation of its systemic character.
EN
The present treatise tackles three issues: 1. the periodization of the history of currently existing literary Slavic languages, 2. the chronology of phonetic changes in the Proto-Slavic langue until its breakup, 3. the final period of existence of the Proto-Slavic language and the real image of the phonological system of the Old Church Slavonic language, based on dialectological research as well as on detailed analysis of both alphabets (of the phonetic features in correlation with the graphic image of the letters). Ad 1. In languages whose writing traditions developed from Old Church Slavonic, we distinguish a Church Slavonic period of a specific recension (e.g. Ukrainian, Serbian), and subsequently the period of national revival and the contemporary language. In areas where, in contrast, the first texts were written in a non-Slavic language (e. g. Latin) we distinguish periods on the basis of cultural and literary trends. Exceptions: a) The Polish language, which has the longest uninterrupted history of weightings based on the same dialect, for which we distinguish the Old Polish, Middle Polish and Modern Polish periods, b) the Bulgarian language with a Church Slavonic tradition (the language known as Old Bulgarian, based on the dialect of Thessaloniki, used until the 18th century, and Modern Bulgarian based on the Northeastern dialect). Ad 2. It is necessary to distinguish the Proto-Slavic language, common for all Slaves living in their Urheimat, from the Common Slavic language, with dialectal differences, especially in connection with recent dialectological research, in particular since G.Y. Shevelov (1964) published his well-known work concerning historical Proto-Slavic phonology. Ad 3. The analysis of the oldest Slavic alphabets points to the necessity of revising the views on the phonetic value of the graphemes discussed in detail in the paper..
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Content available remote Jazyková různost jako konstitutivní rys jazyka
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EN
The author submits that apart from external factors working towards diversity such as differentiation of languages, there are structural factors inherent to natural languages that generate diversity and which should be considered a constitutive feature of language. In order to facilitate the analysis of language diversity, a comprehensive model of language and communication, called anthropocentric, is proposed. It combines Ogden and Richards' semiotic triangle and Buehler's speech model in a basic case of communication between two individuals possessing the same language. Then, at least nine interfaces are identified where humans are presented with a number of equally acceptable alternative solutions for developing their language units, thus inevitably giving rise to diversity. Instances of such alternative solutions are then shown at the various interfaces, starting with ways of building the syllable and the word, then proceeding to the interfaces of lexical and syntactic meaning vs. structure of reality, of signifie and signifiant, of individual signs and the system of language, of langue vs. parole. Finally, it is suggested that the same alternatives that lead to language diversity also enable alternative solutions to specific problems of lexicon and grammar within individual languages, thus giving rise to various styles and supporting language change.
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Content available remote Cognitive subtypes of dyslexia
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EN
Different theories conceptualise dyslexia as either a phonological, attentional, auditory, magnocellular, or automatisation deficit. Such heterogeneity suggests the existence of yet unrecognised subtypes of dyslexics suffering from distinguishable deficits. The purpose of the study was to identify cognitive subtypes of dyslexia. Out of 642 children screened for reading ability 49 dyslexics and 48 controls were tested for phonological awareness, auditory discrimination, motion detection, visual attention, and rhythm imitation. A combined cluster and discriminant analysis approach revealed three clusters of dyslexics with different cognitive deficits. Compared to reading-unimpaired children cluster no. 1 had worse phonological awareness; cluster no. 2 had higher attentional costs; cluster no. 3 performed worse in the phonological, auditory, and magnocellular tasks. These results indicate that dyslexia may result from distinct cognitive impairments. As a consequence, prevention and remediation programmes should be specifically targeted for the individual child's deficit pattern.
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