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EN
The problem of monetary aspect of welfare in employees’ household was undertaken in this paper. In order to identify the households in danger of poverty, the binary logit models approach was applied. It was found that the estimation of models without the interaction terms results in misspecification error. Due to this, the interaction terms, between the socio-economic factors of households were included in the model. The obtained results can have significant importance in the aspect of social policy in Poland.
EN
Human cognition is conditioned not only by social existence but also by the whole culture which is understood as a set of all forms of social awareness. Learning, popular knowledge and different cognitive patterns determine and select consciousness content. People, being subject to specific psychological mechanisms, determine quality and complexity of social relations and every day create from the beginning social reality. Knowledge about the ways people call the world and give new meaning to it as well as how they define the sense of their own activity are important and let better understand the phenomenon of organizational life and a special role of human as a creator of organizational culture.
EN
Quantum dots, due to their unique optical properties, constitute significant materials for many areas of nanotechnology and bionanotechnology. This work presents a review of researches dedicated to the interaction between quantum dots (QDs) with human serum albumin (HSA) and human cell culture as important for nanomedicine applications. The optical properties of bio-nanocomplexes formed by nanoparticles including colloidal QDs (e.g., CdTe, CdS, CdCoS) and albumin are displayed. The absorption spectra show that adding HSA to colloidal QDs leads to a gradual decrease of absorption and broadening of the exciton structure. The photoluminescence quenching results indicate that the quenching effect of QDs on HSA fluorescence depends on the size and temperature. The nature of quenching is rather static, resulting in forming QD-HSA complexes. The CdTe QD-HSA complexes show chemical stability in a PBS buffer. Furthermore, it is stable in cytoplasm and suitable for cell labeling, tracking, and other bioimaging applications.
EN
The paper presents selected problems of the coexistence of chronic pain and depression . It has been assumed that chronic pain and depression make two se parate ailments that often coexist. The phenomenon of the coexistence of physical symptoms (including pain) and depression have been widely popularised. Over 65% of patients with pain ailments suffer from depression that is often undiagnosed. The therapi sts specify this phenomenon as a “closed circle”, as it is not known what the beginning of its appearance was. On one hand, pain often hides the symptoms of depression so effectively that its recognition by a physician seems impossible; on the other, it is known that chronic pain causes continual lowering of mood and depression that increases pain ailments. Moreover, the existence of common neurobiological mechanisms makes depression and pain escalate mutually.
EN
Each business enterprise strives to achieve the most efficient organization of its operations. While business enterprises can influence internal factors of organization, external factors are more rigid. Public organizations have less of an incentive to be efficient. Furthermore, their organization is less favorable since the decision making is centralized and highly formal (i.e. legislative). Adoption of business process orientation (BPO) paradigm, with an emphasis on the management of internal factors of organization, has provided business organizations with substantial savings and improvements in efficiency. However, external factors also have a high potential for improvement of efficiency. For instance, development of supply chains or value chains has proven that external factors can be harnessed to provide additional sources of competitiveness. Other external factors can also be used to improve the performance of individual organizations, an entire industry or economy as a whole. These synergic effects can be achieved through a unified and virtualized communication infrastructure, document exchange and conduct of business transactions. The goal of this paper is to present business environment properties in an e-Society that can be further developed to enhance integration between organizations and public institutions, which in turn can be used to create and manage inter-institutional business processes. This type of processes can promote e-business and e-business models to a new level of efficiency, making a whole industry or national economy comparatively more competitive in international markets.
EN
The study introduces a system analysis approach to Kinetic School Drawings (KSD) in a theoretical frame which approaches drawings as fragments of expressive behaviour. After reviewing literature, it describes the application of the Seven-Step Configuration Analysis (SSCA) on Kinetic School Drawings. The SSCA consists of context analysis, process analysis, phenomenological, intuitive, global and item analysis. The six steps are followed by a seventh phase, which synthesises configurations of phenomena and meanings. The objective of the paper is the description of a practical method for the clinician which avoids mechanistic and dictionary-like interpretations. The application of the SSCA results in a semantic network of meanings which is inherently individual and provides deep understanding of the child. The study also summarises some conclusions of the latest Hungarian studies on the KSD (n=356).
EN
In this paper, pyrolysis of selected biomass types and their mixtures was investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The purpose of the work was to study interactions between components of biomass mixtures and influence of ash composition on pyrolysis up to 600°C, using two heating rates 1 K/min and 10 K/min. Five different biomass samples were taken into consideration: oak, pine, wheat straw, rape straw and energy crop (willow). It was found, that during slow pyrolysis (1 K/min) the volatiles yield increased and interactions were more noticeable. Results showed that increasing content of some components, like wheat straw, willow, in some biomass mixtures may favor occurrence of interactions. It was also found, that increasing heating rate accelerates devolatilization process and shifts extreme of DTG to higher temperature. Authors attempted to present volatiles yield, in a given temperature range, as a linear function of elemental composition of biomass.
EN
The interactions of Ipomoea aquatica and Utricularia reflexa with phytoplankton densities were studied in a small water body in Zaria, Nigeria from June to November 2007. The negative effects of both macrophytes on 10 out of 15 phytoplankton taxa, including Staurastrum sp., Netrium sp., Ulothrix sp., Marssionella sp. and Closterium sp. were differentiated from other environmental effects. U. reflexa, on the other hand, showed positive associations with species like Actinocyclus sp., Palmellopsis sp., Spirotaenia sp., Microcystis sp. and Marssionella sp. Qualitative phytochemical screening and FT-IR analyses confirmed the presence of glycosides, anthraquinone, saponins, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, and alkaloids in Ipomoea aquatica and Utricularia reflexa. The observed variations in phytoplankton community dynamics were closely related to the presence of these macrophytes as well as the environmental conditions in the pond.
EN
Biomass has high content of volatile matter, hence devolatilization process is rapid. Necessity of supplying high fluxes of combustion air is usually one of the factor which leads to high values of air excess ratio and, as a consequence to decrease of energy efficiency. However it is possible to use mixture of different sorts of biomasses and thus obtain fuel which might equalize devolatilization rate. In this paper procedure for choosing optimal mixture of given sorts of biomasses based on their composition is presented. First, pyrolysis process of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was conducted using thermobalance. Based on the results and assuming that there are no interactions between pure components, optimal composition of the mixture were calculated. In the next step, according to obtained optimal composition, proportions of oak, pine, rape straw and wheat straw were calculated. Finally, pyrolysis of selected biomass mixtures was carried out. It was found that due to the presence of cellulose, which decomposes in very narrow temperature range, all of mixtures are characterized by the devolatilization with local maximum occurring at the temperature around 350°C.
EN
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was conducted for a DNB (1,3-dinitrobenzene) crystal, a ε-CL-20 (2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane) crystal, a CL-20/DNB co-crystal and a CL-20/DNB composite. From the calculated maximum bond length (Lmax) of the N−NO2 trigger bond, the cohesive energy density (CED) and the binding energy (Ebind), it was found that the CL-20/DNB co-crystal is more insensitive than its composite. Its thermal stability is also better than that of its composite. The pair correlation function (PCF) analysis method was applied to investigate the interfaces between different molecular layers in the CL-20/DNB co-crystal, and in the composite. Additionally, the calculated mechanical data showed that the moduli of the CL-20/DNB co-crystal and its composite are smaller and their elastic elongation and ductility are better than those of the ε-CL-20 and DNB crystals.
PL
Zjawisko interakcji między jednocześnie stosowanymi substancjami może znacząco zmienić skuteczność farmakoterapii. Wpływ używek na leczenie czy wzajemnie oddziaływania między lekami jest dobrze znany, jednak interakcje między lekami a substancjami zawartymi w żywności są zbadane niedostatecznie. Wiele leków anksjolitycznych może wchodzić w niebezpieczne interakcje z popularnymi produktami, takimi jak: mleko, czosnek, kofeina, sok grejpfrutowy. W wyniku tego zmianie ulega farmakokinetyka lub farmakodynamika, co może mieć istotny wpływ na efekty podjętego leczenia.
EN
The phenomenon of interaction between simultaneously applied substances can substantially change the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. While the effects of stimulants on therapy or mutual interactions between medicines are well known, the interactions between medicines and substances in foods have not received sufficient attention. Numerous anxiolytics can enter into interactions with such products as milk, garlic, caffeine, grapefruit juice. The resulting change in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics can have significant influence on the effects of treatment.
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Content available remote Intersekcionální přístup ke zkoumání nezaměstnanosti
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EN
This article critically evaluates the use of an intergroup intersectional perspective in quantitative research on social inequalities and thereby helps to obtain deeper knowledge of the sources of inequality that impact chances of unemployment in the Czech Republic and contribute to the discussion of the benefits and limitations of using this approach. The advantage offered by the intersectional perspective is illustrated in an analysis of EU-SILC data. The analysis combines an additive and multiplicative (intersectional) approach to research on unemployment in the Czech Republic. An additive model of binary logistic regression is accompanied by binary logistic regression models with interactions. The aim is to identify the factors and the social positions that result from the interaction of these factors that together influence chances of unemployment. The analysis shows that one source of inequality in interaction with other sources can have an entirely different impact on chances of unemployment than individual factors have on their own. An example is the interaction of gender and parenthood, which creates different social positions for different subpopulations. Motherhood, fatherhood, and the absence of the need to care for a young child can generate specific (dis)advantages for women or men also depending on the nature of their employment.
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EN
This text has three parts. In the first, I discuss the presence and absence of the concept of “social relations” in social sciences and focus on “ethnic relations.” Then, I analyse theways inwhich the theoretical problems of ethnic relations are conceptualized in sociology. Finally, I offer my own suggestions. Why is it worth dealing with concepts of interactions and social relations at all, especially with respect to macrosocial phenomena (such as “ethnic issues”)? First, it seems to me that these are some of sociology’s most basic concepts. Second, the relational and interactionist current in contemporary sociology offers some important inspirations relating to the analysis of macrocultural phenomena. I suggest to follow Randall Collins’ ideas and seek the “microfoundations” of macrosocial phenomena in the chains of interaction rituals present at the foundation of society as such. I intend to avoid such a sociological approach to ethnicity which calls all ethnic phenomena “ethnic relations” but in fact deals mainly with individual groups, types of structured ethnic order or attitudes. Actually, ethnic order rests on the interactionist understanding of the social relations between ethnic actors. It is these relations which dynamize social order.
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EN
Clozapine is an agent which undergoes intensive cytochrome P450-mediated hepatic metabolism (mainly by 1A2 and, to a lesser extent, by 3A4 and 2D6). The combined use of clozapine with drugs that inhibit these isoenzymes, such as ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, elevates clozapine serum levels, thus increasing the risk or severity of adverse effects and complications typical of clozapine therapy. At the same time, enzymatic inductors (e.g. rifampicin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, St. John’s wort, nicotine, cannabinols) might contribute to reduced efficacy or, after their rapid discontinuation, toxicity of clozapine. The occurrence of synergistic adverse effects due to pharmacodynamic properties is another aspect of the interactions of clozapine with other agents. Sedative, hypotonic, anticholinergic, myelotoxic, and convulsive effects might increase after a simultaneous use of clozapine and other agents inducing the same adverse effects. Clozapine should be used with particular caution during infectious diseases as some of antibiotics (e.g. macrolides) as well as other antimicrobials (e.g. fluorochinolones) and antifungals (mainly azoles) may, by inhibiting clozapine metabolism, increase its myelotoxicity. On the other hand, synergistic myelotoxic effects of clozapine and some of antibiotics (clindamycin, metronidazole) or antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. ibuprofen, paracetamol, metamizole) may occur. Due to the high risk of interactions, clozapine is intended mainly for monotherapy. However, knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of clozapine, and thus its potential interactions, allows to include this agent, if necessary, in combined therapy, provided that the necessary precautions are taken.
PL
Klozapina to lek podlegający intensywnemu metabolizmowi wątrobowemu z udziałem izoenzymów cytochromu P450 (głównie 1A2, w mniejszym stopniu 3A4 i 2D6). Łączne stosowanie leków hamujących wymienione izoenzymy, czyli np. ciprofloksacyny, erytromycyny, fluoksetyny lub fluwoksaminy, skutkuje zwiększeniem stężenia klozapiny we krwi pacjenta, co pociąga za sobą wzrost ryzyka pojawienia się bądź nasilenia działań niepożądanych albo powikłań typowych dla leczenia klozapiną. Jednocześnie induktory enzymatyczne (np. rifampicyna, fenytoina, karbamazepina, wyciąg z dziurawca, nikotyna, kanabinole) mogą przyczynić się do spadku skuteczności klozapiny, a po nagłym odstawieniu – do ujawnienia się jej toksyczności. Kolejnym aspektem interakcji klozapiny z innymi lekami jest sumowanie się działań niepożądanych wynikających z właściwości farmakodynamicznych. Działanie sedatywne, hipotonizujące, antycholinergiczne, mielotoksyczne czy drgawkorodne klozapiny może zatem się nasilić, kiedy będzie ona łączona z innymi substancjami również powodującymi takie działania niepożądane. Szczególnej uwagi wymaga stosowanie klozapiny w trakcie chorób infekcyjnych. Z jednej strony bowiem niektóre podawane wówczas antybiotyki (np. makrolidy) oraz inne leki przeciwbakteryjne (np. fluorochinolony) i przeciwgrzybicze (głównie azole) mogą – przez hamowanie metabolizmu klozapiny – przyczyniać się do nasilania jej mielotoksyczności. Z drugiej strony może dochodzić do sumowania się działania mielotoksycznego klozapiny i pewnych antybiotyków (klindamycyna, metronidazol) czy leków przeciwgorączkowych i przeciwzapalnych (np. ibuprofen, paracetamol, metamizol). Ze względu na wysokie ryzyko interakcji klozapina to lek przeznaczony głównie do monoterapii. Jednak znajomość właściwości farmakokinetycznych i farmakodynamicznych klozapiny i wynikających z nich interakcji pozwala, kiedy jest to konieczne, na włączenie jej w schemat terapii kombinowanej – pod warunkiem zachowania należytej ostrożności.
PL
Interakcje między lekami a żywnością to temat wciąż niezbadany i budzący liczne wątpliwości. W związku z tym pacjenci, ale także lekarze czy farmaceuci często nie w pełni zdają sobie sprawę z istniejących zagrożeń. W grupie leków neuroleptycznych interakcje te dotyczą powszechnych artykułów spożywczych, jak: kawa, herbata (z uwagi na obecność taniny), produkty kofeinowe oraz sól kuchenna. Na skutek zmniejszenia wchłaniania, zmian metabolizmu lub upośledzenia wydalania może dochodzić do zmniejszenia lub braku skuteczności podjętego leczenia, bądź do nasilonych działań niepożądanych i niebezpiecznych powikłań. Artykuł opisuje zjawisko interakcji neuroleptyków z artykułami spożywczymi, a także zawiera zalecenia umożliwiające ograniczenie ich występowania.
EN
Interactions between drugs and food are still an unexplored and unclear area. That’s why patients, doctors and pharmacists sometimes don’t fully understand and realize existing dangers. In the neuroleptic group, the interactions pertain to popular food products such as coffee, tea (due to the presence of tannin), caffeine products and salt. Lowering of absorption, changes of metabolism, defective excretion may result in reduction or absence of effectiveness of therapy or intensive, unwanted effects and dangerous complications. The article describes the phenomenon of interaction of neuroleptics with food products and offers recommendations which allow their reduction.
EN
Red basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) cv. Red Rubin was cultivated in model pot experiment in the soil amended by arsenic, cadmium and lead solutions in stepwise concentrations representing the soil concentration levels of former mining area in the vicinity of Příbram, Czech Republic. The element levels added to the soil reached up to 40 mg Cd, 100 mg As, and 2000 mg Pb per kg of soil. Moreover, essential macro-and microelements as well as cyanidine contents were investigated to assess their potential interactions with the risk elements. The extractable element portions in soils determined at the end of vegetation period differed according to the individual elements. Whereas the plant-available (extractable with 0.11M CH3COOH) content of Cd represented 70-100% of the added Cd, the mobile portion of Pb did not exceed 1%. The risk element content in plants reflected the increasing element contents in soil. The dominant element portions remained in plant roots indicating the limited translocation ability of risk elements to the aboveground biomass of this plant species. Although the risk element contents in amended plants significantly increased, no visible symptoms of phytotoxicity occurred. However, the effect of enhanced risk element contents on the essential element uptake was assessed. Considering inter-element relationships, elevated sulphur levels were seen in amended plants, indicating its possible role of phytochelatin synthesis in the plants. Moreover, the molybdenum contents in plant biomass dropped down with increasing risk element uptake by plants confirming As-Mo and Cd-Mo antagonism. The increasing content of cyanidine in the plant biomass confirmed possible role of anthocyanins in detoxification mechanism of risk element contaminated plants and suggested the importance of anthocyanin pigments for risk element tolerance of plants growing in contaminated areas.
EN
Spatio-temporal stress changes and interactions between adjacent fault segments consist of the most important component in seismic hazard assessment, as they can alter the occurrence probability of strong earthquake onto these segments. The investigation of the interactions between adjacent areas by means of the linked stress release model is attempted for moderate earthquakes (M ≥ 5.2) in the Corinth Gulf and the Central Ionian Islands (Greece). The study areas were divided in two subareas, based on seismotectonic criteria. The seismicity of each subarea is investigated by means of a stochastic point process and its behavior is determined by the conditional intensity function, which usually gets an exponential form. A conditional intensity function of Weibull form is used for identifying the most appropriate among the models (simple, independent and linked stress release model) for the interpretation of the earthquake generation process. The appropriateness of the models was decided after evaluation via the Akaike information criterion. Despite the fact that the curves of the conditional intensity functions exhibit similar behavior, the use of the exponential-type conditional intensity function seems to fit better the data.
19
Content available remote Crossed product of a C*-algebra by a semigroup of interactions
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EN
The paper presents a construction of the crossed product of a C*-algebra by a commutative semigroup of bounded positive linear maps generated by partial isometries. In particular, it generalizes Antonevich, Bakhtin, Lebedev’s crossed product by an endomorphism, and is related to Exel’s interactions. One of the main goals is the Isomorphism Theorem established in the case of actions by endomorphisms.
PL
Badano wpływ jonów Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+ i Mn2+ na wzrost drożdży Saccharomyces cerevisiae w zależności od początkowego pH roztworu hodowlanego (brzeczka piwna i podłoże Rose`a). Stosowany w doświadczeniach szczep drożdży (hybryd YT) charakteryzował się stosunkowo małą wrażliwością zarówno na niedobory, jak i na zwiększenie zawartości badanych jonów. Stwierdzono, że Zn2+ zmniejsza ujemny wpływ Co2+, a Mn2+ wykazywał podobny efekt w stosunku do hamującego działania zwiększonych stężeń Cu2+. Zmiana pH podłoża hodowlanego z 3,5 do 4,5 oraz 5,5 zmniejszała toksyczność niektórych jonów metali i wywierała dodani wpływ na dynamikę wzrostu badanych drożdży. Wykazano zmienne oddziaływanie tych samych stężeń badanych metali w zależności od pH i równoczesnej obecności innych jonów w pożywce hodowlanej.
EN
The influence of Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Cu2+ and Mn2+ ions on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as affected by on the initial pH of the medium solution (the brewery worth and the Rose`a synthetic medium) was studied. The yeast strain (hybryd YT) used in experiments had relatively low sensivity to both deficiency and increasing concentration of the metals. It was found that the presence of Zn2+ reduced negative influence of Co2+ ions and Mn2+ had the same effect on Cu2+ ions. Increasing of medium pH form 3,5 to 4,5 and 5,5 reduced toxicity of some metal ions and exerted a positive effect on dynamics of yeast growth. In conclusion, the effect of the metal ions, at the same concentration in medium, on yeast growth was influenced by both pH and presence of accompanying ions.
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