Before every parliamentary election in the 1920s, the Slovak People's Party had to struggle with different circumstances. In 1920 the program of the party was based on three ideological pillars: Christian, national and popular or social. In the first parliamentary elections, the party gained third place after the Social Democrats and Agrarians. The support of priests, who supported the Ludaks played an important part. Voters also certainly decided according to confession. Before the 1925 elections, the party presented a thoroughly revised program for the autonomy of Slovakia. Hlinka's Slovak People's Party (HSLS) won with a high number of votes. The active support of Catholic voters and criticism of the coalition certainly worked. Taking over the agenda of the Agrarian Party, meaning increased interest in the problem of land reform, could also bring good results for the Ludaks. In the 1929 elections, HSLS again triumphed, but with fewer votes than in 1925. The party had been damaged by the Tuka affair. The negative impact of the sudden move to the opposition camp and a certain political isolation caused by the Tuka affair replaced fear of the loss of votes in connection with the participation of HSLS in government.
As with all parties in a parliamentary democracy, the activity of the agrarian party in inter-war Slovakia was directed towards gaining the largest possible share of state power. Its effort was also motivated by the fact that two-thirds of the population of Slovakia worked in agriculture, so a party defending their interests had the possibility to become the strongest in the country. However, the agrarian party, which originated in Slovakia in 1919 under the name National Republican Party of Small Farmers (Narodna republikanska strana rolnicka) did not achieve this aim in the 1920 elections. The Social Democrats won the election in Slovakia. The socialist parties did not repeat their success from 1920 in later parliamentary elections in Slovakia. The agrarians again entered the competition to gain the position of the strongest party in Slovakia. After 1922 they were helped by alliance with Czech partners in an agrarian party for the whole Czechoslovakia. After this year the agrarians in Slovakia built up their organizational structure and started intensive agitation, largely connected with the land reform then occurring. However, in spite of this, the county elections in 1923 indicated and the parliamentary elections of 1925 definitively confirmed that Hlinka's Slovak People's Party had become the strongest party in Slovakia. In contrast to the centralist oriented agrarians, it supported the autonomy of Slovakia.
The military intervention of the Prague central government in Slovakia during the days from 9 to 11th March, 1939 was intended to prevent the internal disintegration of Czechoslovakia. It would achieve this by replacing the autonomous government of J. Tiso and limiting the separatist tendencies of the radical members of Hlinka's Slovak People's Party and the paramilitary Hlinka Guard. However, the military coup was not thoroughly prepared from the military, political or propaganda points of view. After the initial successes of the Czech gendarmes, who penetrated into Slovakia in the evening on March 9, the Hlinka Guard began to organize resistance and present the coup as an attempt to reverse the results of the Act on the Autonomy of the Slovak Region from November 2, 1938 and return to the centralist regime in Slovakia. In the struggle for public opinion, the Prague government could not convince the public about its intentions, and pressure from the People's Party and Hlinka Guard forced it to hand over power to the political representatives of the Slovak region in the afternoon on March 11. During the evening President E. Hacha appointed K. Sidor as the new premier of the autonomous government. Sidor began to work on political consolidation. He enforced the release of imprisoned members of the Hlinka Guard and representatives of the People's Party. He also forced the government in Prague to make various political concessions, which increased the legal powers of the autonomous government in Bratislava. The military intervention in Slovakia worsened relations between the Czechs and Slovaks. Adolf Hitler used the situation to achieve the internal break up of the republic. Berlin unambiguously supported the demand for the creation of a Slovak state. The Parliament of the Slovak Region declared an independent state on March 14, 1939. This began the process of internal disintegration of Czechoslovakia, which led to the occupation of Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia by Hungary and the occupation of Bohemia and Moravia by Nazi Germany on March 15.