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Content available remote Analyzing selected risk factors for the development of kidney cancer
The aim of this study was to determine influence of selected lifestyle factors on kidney cancer. The study brings data from two centres of international multicentric hospital-based analytical observational case-control studies. Data were obtained from a group of 300 patients newly diagnosed with kidney cancer (ICD-O-2 code C64) and 335 controls from two centres in the Czech Republic. Results showed that smoking increased OR to 1.09 (95% CI 0.77–1.55) and 1.06 (95% CI 0.73–1.52), but the results were not statistically significant. Obesity (BMI⩾30) created adjusted OR 1.71 (95% CI 1.11–2.66) and 1.44 (95% CI 0.91–2.28), showing a minor, statistically insignificant, effect of obesity on the development of kidney cancer. For hypertension, adjusted OR was 1.73 (95% CI 1.25–2.40), suggesting a minor to moderate effect of hypertension on kidney cancer. The analysis results showed a positive association between hereditary predisposition and the development of kidney cancer with an OR of 1.97 (95% CI 1.41–2.76) and 1.97 (95% CI 1.40–2.77) depending on the model of adjustment. The reasons for the high incidence of kidney cancer are not fully understood. Genetic polymorphisms, together with other lifestyle and environmental factors, are likely to contribute to various rates of kidney cancer incidence throughout the world.
Content available remote Is consumption of vegetables and fruit a protective factor against kidney cancer?
The role of vegetable and fruit consumption in the aetiology of kidney cancer was analyzed using data from a case-control study conducted in two centres in the Czech Republic between 1999 and 2003. The study comprised 300 patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed kidney cancer and 335 controls. Information on dietary habits was obtained using a standardized food frequency questionnaire including 23 food items. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression models. A strong protective effect of vegetables consumption on renal cell carcinoma risk was observed among people with high consumption of fresh vegetables (OR 0.42 95% CI (0.29–0.60)) and cooked vegetables (OR 0.71, 95% CI (0.51–1.00)). The protective role of fresh fruit was significant as crude OR 0.71, 95% CI (0.50–1.00), but after adjusting for the main risk factors no association was found (OR 1.08, 95% CI (0.71–1.64)). The protective role of pickled vegetables disappeared after adjustment for the main risk factors.
Content available remote The role of selected risk factors for development of oesophageal cancer
A hospital-based analytical observational case-control study of 88 oesophageal cancer cases and 200 controls was conducted in the University Hospital Olomouc. A standardized questionnaire was used. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) are calculated by logistic regression. The adjusted odds ratios for tobacco smoking were 6.20 (95% CI 2.78–13.83), 10.64 (95% CI 3.46–32.72) and 3.53 (95% CI 1.26–9.88) for oesophageal cancer, for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and oesophageal adenocarcinoma, respectively. An inverse association with overweight and obesity was found in both histological types. In adenocarcinoma, there was a relatively strong positive association with a statistically significant result for alcohol consumption only in a group consuming more than 300 g of alcohol weekly; the OR was 5.81 (95% CI 1.17–28.84). The strong, statistically significant association was found in alcohol consumption regardless of histological type: the OR was 4.41 (95% CI 1.09–17.84). In a group with 20 or more X-ray exposures, there was a very strong statistically significant positive association. In vegetable consumption, an inverse association was found that was statistically significant only if more than 8 portions of vegetables were eaten weekly, ORs were 0.02–0.11.
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