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The article presents little known biographical facts about Helena Grossówna, one of the stars of the Polish film industry in the 1930s. Born in Toruń, the artist started out her career as a member of a ballet company for fledging dancers founded at the Toruń theatre during the first directorship of Karol Benda (1924-26), which culminated in the opening of the Pomorska Opera. At the time, Grossówna was able to improve her dancing skills by performing in operas, operettas, and musical comedies. Having travelled to France, where she took classes from Matylda Krzesińska and Bronislava Nijinska (Vaslav Nijinsky’s sister), Grossówna returned to Toruń and worked as a choreographer at the Toruński Theatre, run again by Karol Benda (1930-32). The article contains as detailed a description as the scant source materials permit of Helena Grossówna’s performance as Salome in Golgota [Golgotha] by Bolesław Rosłan (dir. Józef Cornobis, 1931), and it presents strong evidence that Grossówna left Toruń as a fully fledged artist.
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This article aims to identify the impact of sport events on tourism development in Torun, and the perspective indication of its usage in aspects of shaping the national and local tourism. Torun has a great potential for tourism (with its wealth of architectural monuments and diverse culture), however the creation of mass running events as a new product should be included as one of the elements of the tourism development strategy in the city. If strengthened and developed, a “sport” form of tourism can improve the attractiveness of Torun, constitute a diversified product, and as a result, become – along with cultural and business tourism – another driving force of tourism growth in the city. This is also indicative of the use of synergy and mutual benefits for the multidirectional development of urban tourism.
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Content available remote Teatr Narodowy na Pomorzu w kontekście toruńskiej drogi do wolności
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The author discusses the history of Toruń’s Narodowy na Pomorzu Theatre in the context of political events (the regaining of independence by Poland, the Paris Peace Conference, the Polish-Soviet War) and the Polish-German relations just after the First World War. He describes the futile attempts made by the German authorities and directors of the Stadtheater Thorn, and Roman Kalkowski in particular, to keep a German-speaking stage in the town, and discusses the Toruń and Bydgoszcz performances of the touring Polski Theatre headed by Ludwik Dybizbański. He also focuses on the birth of the first Polish public theatre in Toruń and the most significant artistic and non-artistic events of its operation under Franciszek Frączkowski (1920/1921 season) and Mieczysław Szpakiewicz (1921/1922 season).
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The subject of the article are viewpoints of Johann Regius and Conrad Graser the Older, pastors and scholars connected with Torun’s Academic Gymnasium School at the beginning of the 17th century, referring to the worship of images. On the basis of the polemical texts of Graser Historia Antichristi and Ultima Verba it was shown that in his polemics there appeared many topoi typical of Protestant argumentation in the dispute about the worship of pictures taking place between Catholics and advocates of Reformed denominations. The most important place is occupied by the belief about the resemblance between the Catholic cult described in the Old Testament and the worship given to idols, as well as the criticism of extravagant temples and ceremonies. Graser’s polemics was directed against the Catholics and perhaps the Lutherans; it was connected with the phenomenon of the Second Reformation in Prussian towns of the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries. The statements not only prove that Toruń’s and Gdańsk’s Protestants were familiar with the basic arguments in the dispute about the worship of pictures in its European context, but they also demonstrate the manner in which the Protestant doctrine could affect the form of works of art created in Toruń in the epoch of the dominance of Reformed denominations. Finally, the source of Melchior Adam was cited, which referred to the burial of Graser and his epitaph. This proves that funerary art, embracing the biggest number of works of art to be found in churches taken over by Protestants in Toruń and other Prussian towns, was accepted even by the most radical opponents of the worship of images.
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Content available Żydzi w Toruniu w latach 1793 –1950
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The oldest preserved statute of Jewish Community in Toruń was published in year 1822. The others were approved in 1858, 1866 and 1889 (the last one was binding since 1925). The first Chief Rabbi in Toruń in years 1804 –1847 was Hermann Simon Leiser. His successorswere: Krakauer, Engelbert, Rahmer, Oppenheim and Rosenberg. Only in 1847, when a new emancipation act was introduced, things for Jewish Community changed for the better, as its members earned civil rights. The Jewish Community in Toruń numbered 500 members. The political emancipation contributed to social assimilation. One of Zionism early pioneers and supporter of the re-settlement of the Land of Israel was rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795–1874) from Lissau (Leszno). Since 1829 he had lived in Toruń (Szeroka Street 49). He was a thinker, a philosopher, an author of various academic works (among them the most important was Drishat Zion). He was buried in Jewish Cemetery in Toruń that was founded in 1723. Despite the fact that the cemetery was closed down and devastated (none of matzevots resp. tombstones preserved to our times) we can reconstruct its look due to the photographs taken in 1975. Among rabbi Kalischer the most prominent figures of Jewish Toruń were a photographer Lotte Jacobi (1896 –1990) and a painter Julie Wolfthorn (1864 –1944). The synagogue in Toruń was built in 1847 at Szczytna Street 10, though the prayer house was pulled down by Nazis in 1939. In 1920 (according to growing anti-Semitism movement) numerous members of the Diaspora of Toruń migrated to Germany. Only 147 of them decided to stay in the city. The new rabbi was Doctor Hermann Wolpe. His successor (since 1932) was Izaak Lejb Glicenstein. The outbreak of the Second World War resulted in liquidation of Jewish Community in Toruń. In a report dated October 17, 1939 Nazi authorities stated that there were no Jews in Toruń. After the end of the war Jewish Community in Toruń was not re-established; the local unit of Central Committee of Jews in Poland (since 1946) did not take up any appropriate actions.
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Das älteste Statut von der Jüdischen Gemeinde in Thorn stammt aus dem Jahr 1822. Die nächsten Statuten wurden in den Jahren 1858, 1866 und 1889 angenommen (die letzte galt bis zum 1925). Der erste Thorner Rabbi war Hermann Simon Leiser (er war von 1804 bis zum 1847 tätig). Die nächsten waren: Krakauer, Engelbert, Rahmer, Oppenheim und Rosenberg. Erst das Emanzipationsedikt (1847) brachte Änderungen für die Jüdische Gemeinde, als es bürgerliche Gleichberechtigung der Juden garantierte. Zu dieser Zeit zählte die Thorner Gemeinde etwa 500 Mitglieder. Die Emanzipation gab wichtigen Antrieb zur Assimilation. Der erste Mann, der eine Idee von einem jüdischen Staat in Palatinen präsentierte, war ein Rabbi Zvi Hirsch Kalischer (1795–1874), der aus Lissa kam. Er wohnte in Thorn an der Breitestr. 46. Er war ein Denker, ein Philosoph, ein Autor von vielfaltigen wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten, insbesondere Drishat Zion. Er wurde auf dem Thorner Jüdischen Friedhof beerdiget, der im Jahre 1723 etablieret wurde. Obwohl diese Begräbnisstätte liquidiert wurde und die Graben zerstöret wurden, kann man der 55 Bildnis von der Friedhoff (dank den Fotografien aus dem Jahr 1975) rekonstruieren. Das Friedhoff kann auch mit dem Fotografen, Lotte Jacobi (1896– 1990), und der Malerin, Julie Wolfthorn, assoziiert werden. Thorner Synagoge, die im Jahr 1847 an der Schillerstr. 10 gebaut wurde, wurde im Jahr 1939 von den Nazis zerstöret. Im Jahre 1920, infolge stärkendes Antisemitismus, hat ein großer Teil der Gemeinde nach Deutschland emigrieret. In Thorn sind nur 147 Juden geblieben. Bis zum Jahr 1932 war Dr. Hermann Wolpe ein Rabbi, dann wurde der Dinner Gottes Izaak Lejb Glicenstein. Zu Beginn des Zweiten Weltkrieges wurde Thorner Jüdische Gemeinde aufgelöst. Im Bericht von den 17 November 1939 stand, dass in der Stadt keine Juden mehr gebe. Nach Ende des Kriegs wurde die Gemeinde nicht reaktiviert. Die etablierte im Jahr 1946 Filiale von den Zentralen Komitee der polnischen Juden übte fast keine Tätigkeiten aus.
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