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In the text offered to the reader I made an attempt to re-read the central claim presented in the work of S. de Beauvoir titled The Second Sex through the prism of lessons identified for modern upbringing. The central thesis can be described as follows: the differences between genders are socially and culturally conditioned, yet determined by belonging to biological sex; maternal instinct is culturally shaped; the mother’s attitude towards the child depends on its biological sex; housework is limiting women’s potential and focus on outlook causes fear of old age. The direction of change set by de Beauvoir is the androgynous upbringing of women, changing the model of marriage, conscious motherhood, women’s professional work, and creation of feminine cultural communities.
Content available remote Simone de Beauvoir: "Druhé pohlaví" - a kletba překladu
The article deals with a Czech, a Slovak and two English translations of Simone de Beauvoir’s work The Second Sex (Le deuxième sexe, 1949). The first English translation (1953), as well as the Czech (1966) and Slovak (1967) versions, were selective; the only complete translation is the second English translation (2009). However, even this complete English version is considered problematic by the academic public. A comparative analysis of the four translations of The Second Sex presents the choices made by different translators and illustrates the impact of the (incomplete and/or erroneous) translations on the general reception of Simone de Beauvoir’s work.
Cette étude propose une comparaison des traductions tchèque et slovaque et de deux traductions anglaises du chef-d’oeuvre de Simone de Beauvoir, Le deuxième sexe (1949). La première traduction anglaise (1953), ainsi que les versions tchèque (1966) et slovaque (1967) sont partielles. La seule traduction intégrale étant la deuxième traduction anglaise de 2009. Mais elle est également considérée comme problématique par les spécialistes. L’analyse comparative des différentes traductions du Le deuxième sexe indique d’autres procédés de traduction et montre l’influence des traductions (non intégrales et/ou fautives) sur la réception de l’oeuvre de Simone de Beauvoir en tant que telle.
Content available remote Francuski feminizm a problem kobiecej tożsamości
The work is focused on the problem of feminine identity in the contemporary world. It occupies a special place especially within French feminism, represented by the liberal feminist, Élisabeth Badinter. The latest book by this philosopher, entitled The Conflict: How Modern Motherhood Undermines the Status of Women, is a detailed study of the current views on the nature of woman as a mother who also wants to pursue her own individual needs. Taken together, these two identities, the mother and the modern woman, embody the source of that conflict of values which is the ground of the modern woman's identity crisis. We find the origins of women's thinking around identity in the works of the mother of European feminism, Simone de Beauvoir. Badinter continues de Beauvoir’s way of thinking and analyzes the impact of modern naturalistic thinking and the pro-maternity organization La Leche League on the prevailing status of women. In addition, Badinter indicates the special case of French women, who are the only ones to fulfill the contemporary model of a satisfied woman and a committed mother
‘Gender’ is one of those dangerous and widespread ideologies today which fights against traditional family and maternity. According to this ideology, maternity and bringing up children are nothing else but a form of oppressing women. That is why contraception, abortion on demand and sexual debauchery are necessary conditions leading to women liberation. This ideology assumes that a human being is not born a man or a woman in a cultural sense. It is a given culture that creates labels ‘man’ and ‘woman’, thus determining human beings. The theory of gender views as social myths many feminine and masculine qualities stemming from biological differences. According to gender, polarization of the society between men and women leads up to chauvinism and misogyny. Gender, which has adopted ideas and assumptions of the feminist movement, has separated sexuality from procreation and this as a consequence has led to separating procreation and marriage. If those two spheres are separated, a straight way will be open to acknowledging the ‘rights’ of homosexuals to be married and have children (either through adoption or artificial insemination) and to establishing the so called ‘free relationships’ with no commitments or responsibilities. All these constitute a real threat to marriage and family in a traditional sense of the word
Gender jest jedną z tych niebezpiecznych i szeroko dziś lansowanych ideologii, która walczy z tradycyjną rodziną i macierzyństwem. Macierzyństwo i wychowywanie dzieci są według niej formą ucisku kobiety. Dlatego antykoncepcja, aborcja na żądanie, rozpasanie seksualne są warunkami niezbędnymi do „wyzwolenia” kobiet. Ideologia ta zakłada, że człowiek nie rodzi się ani kobietą, ani mężczyzną w sensie kulturowym. To dana kultura konstruuje określenia „kobieta” i „mężczyzna” i w ten sposób determinuje człowieka. Wiele cech „kobiecych” i „męskich” pochodzących z różnic biologicznych teoria gender uważa za mity społeczne. Polaryzacja społeczności na kobiety i mężczyzn prowadzi według niej do szowinizmu i mizoginii. Gender, która przejęła idee i założenia ruchu feministycznego, oddzieliła seksualność od prokreacji, a to w konsekwencji doprowadziło do oddzielenia prokreacji od małżeństwa. Jeżeli zostają odseparowane te dwie sfery, to staje otworem prosta droga do uznania „praw” osób homoseksualnych do małżeństwa i posiadania dzieci (np. przez adopcję lub sztuczne zapłodnienie) oraz do tworzenia tzw. „wolnych związków” bez żadnych zobowiązań i odpowiedzialności. To wszystko stanowi realne zagrożenie dla tradycyjnie pojmowanego małżeństwa i rodziny.
The attractiveness of Honza Krejcarová’s literary work is partially due to its fragmentary character and its role in the development of underground literature. From this point of view, it is difficult to compare to her the famous and scandalous authors of the French existentialist generation, in particular Jean Genet, cult author of France from the end of the Second World War until the decolonization, or Violette Leduc, who stood out as a name mattering in the initiation of the young generations to homosexual literature and one of the founders of self-fiction. In spite of all these differences, the kinship of the texts of these ‘unruly childrenʼ, at the same time ‘enfants martyrsʼ and ‘enfants prodigesʼ, with those, contemporaries, of Krejcarová is striking. The texts of their two more famous commentators, Jean-Paul Sartre for the first one and Simone de Beauvoir for the second one, helps to understand how the myth of these authors was born in a time fascinated by the principle of pleasure up to the death drive.
In one way or another, the other plays an important role in educational settings. Over the last few decades, the recourse to philosophical phenomenology has proved to be helpful for the discussion of this topic. Coming from this thematic direction, this article focuses on the other in its constitutive function for the construction of identity. Both within the phenomenologist Bernhard Waldenfels’ theory of responsivity as well as in the pedagogue Wilfried Lippitz’ theory of alterity, the other is a structural part of the self. It will be shown that within these theories the possible dangers of an encounter with the other cannot be addressed in an adequate way. However, this is especially important in educational contexts. Therefore, with regard to the philosophies of Jean‐Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir, I would like to present two additional phenomenological approaches from which the pedagogical discussion can benefit. Both Sartre and Beauvoir put great focus on possible obstacles regarding the en‐ counter with the other. Whereas Sartre identifies negativity as an essential part of human existence, Beauvoir enriches these thoughts with an ethical component. Against the background of these philosophies, the other comes into view as a possible source of both objectification and empowerment. Lastly, the article shows that an implementation of these considerations in teacher training can lead to a deeper understanding of the constitution of identity and the inherent possibilities of any interaction with the other.
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