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Background: The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between individual profiles of leading traits of special fitness with athletes' technical preparation in the gymnastic vault event at the directed stage of training.Material/Methods: The study involved 60 gymnasts aged 11-13 practising artistic gymnastics at the stage of directed training.The study was carried out in laboratory, training and sports competition conditions in years 2003 - 2007.Results: An analysis of results enabled determining the most informative indices having a significant relation with the sports results in gymnastic vault. Quantitative criteria of special fitness and technical preparation in six-month macrocycles of the training process have been worked out. Individual profiles of special fitness with indication of their changeable character in the three-year period of the study have been presented.Conclusions: The research led to the following conclusions: - an objective quantitative assessment creates a possibility to optimise the training process of the examined competitors through an appropriate selection of training means and methods; - working out the structure of athletes' special preparation with consideration for the curricular requirements in subsequent six-month macrocycles will enable optimising the training process directed not only at the all-round events but also at the possibilities to specialise in selected gymnastic events; - the above study can also stimulate a further development of the theory and methodology of training in artistic gymnastics.
The aim of this study is to determine the differences between the medallists and non-medallists in male and female artistic gymnastics at the Olympic Games from 1996 to 2016. Basic procedures: Data concerning the athletes were obtained from the “Official documents of the International Olympic Committee” which include the athlete’s date of birth and date of competing. The total number of analysed OG participants in men’s artistic gymnastics amounted to n = 419 and the women’s artistic gymnastics was n = 417. Main findings: With men the t test for small independent samples has determined statistically significant differences between medallists and other competitors in 2000 and 2012. Among women no significant statistical differences have been found in all the mentioned variables. Conclusions: The differences between male medallists and non-medallists are manifested through the age of the competitors: 2.57 years in 2000 and 3.57 years in 2012. Compared to other OG a higher level of homogeneity and smaller age difference is noticeable. In difference to men, women had no similar differences within a period of 20 years. In artistic gymnastics in the last couple of years there is a recurring trend of a late specialisation because with each new scoring Code of Points the conditions demanded from the competitors become harder.
Background: The aim of this research is to find a relation between one's special quickness-force abilities, recorded in laboratory conditions, and physical values, revealed during a gymnastic jump in a real sports contest.Material/Methods: The tests were made on gymnasts, aged 15-18 years, from the Academic Sports Association (AZS) in Gdansk. The gymnasts were a selected group of 8 people who had already practised sport for 9-12 years as contestants. The project was carried out in the Physical Effort Laboratory at the Academy of Physical Education and Sport (AWFiS) in Gdansk, using of the Kistler tensometric platform to measure and analyse the ground reaction forces. The strength of leg muscles and pelvic girdle were checked. The measurements of quickness and force abilities of sportsmen were based on the assessment of power of their take-off and the time in which they contacted the ground. The results were compared with the result analysis of jumps achieved by the contestants in the Individual Polish Championships (Iława 2005). The measurement of the mechanical quantities during the take-off at the springboard was done using the photogrammetric method.Results: The statistically highest and important correlation between the results of gymnasts in the quantity of the take-off power, checked on the tensometric platform and at the springboard was with the value being r=0.916 for p≤0.05. A crucial correlation was also observed for the time of the contestant's contact with the ground in laboratory tests and the same parameter measured during the contestant's taking off the springboard (r = 0.668).Conclusions: The analysis of test results reveals a strict correlation between the level of one's abilities in quickness and force in laboratory conditions and physical values revealed during the take-off from a springboard in an actual contest.The measurement of the quickness-force abilities (the power of take-off) in laboratory conditions can be used as the measurement of the sportsmen's preparation for the gymnastic jump.
Background: The inclusion of gymnastic-based movements in workout routines in many exercise training programs, generally called mixed modality training (MMT), and even in many competitions, is increasingly common. In contrast to artistic gymnastic competitions, MMT workouts aim to complete as many movements as quickly as possible, which tends to deform the movement pattern proposed by artistic gymnastics. Execution of the MMT workouts with more of the gymnastics-based style (i.e., based on the gymnastics movement pattern) could improve performance in exercises with a high-level complexity, such as the “ring muscle up” (RMU). Thus, this study aimed to analyze the kinematic aspects of RMU, performed by a former gymnast both with and without the gymnastics based style. Methods: A former gymnast with a successful transition to MMT, carried out RMU using two movement patterns: 1) close to the classical artistic gymnastics pattern (“Front uprise”), and 2) close to that used by many athletes not from gymnastics. The athlete performed RMU, three times with each proposed movement pattern. Images were captured using a high-speed digital camera. Hip and ankle displacement, velocity and acceleration were recorded and analyzed. Results: The execution of RMU was faster and the hip vertical displacement was greater when RMU was carried out with a gymnastics-based style, while ankle displacement path, peak velocity and acceleration were lower. Conclusion: The use of a gymnastics-based style to carry out RMU seems to be advantageous from the biomechanical point of view, favoring the performance of RMU.
Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in body composition and physical fitness in girls aged 7 years before and after a 12-month macrocycle artistic gymnastics training program. Methods. The study involved 32 girls attending the first grade at a sports-focused primary school with a specialization in artistic gymnastics. The study was conducted at the beginning and after an annual training cycle. Measures of body height, body mass, and body composition were performed. Physical fitness was assessed using the Eurofit physical fitness test battery. Results. The results showed average body composition and a high initial level and later dynamic increase in the physical fitness of the participants. Conclusions. The dynamic increase in the results of six Eurofit tests and the overall high level of results in seven of the tests after completing the annual training cycle is evidence of the high effectiveness of the applied training program in improving the physical fitness of the tested girls. The reasons for the lack of significant progress in one of the tests measuring agility (10 × 5 m shuttle run) are unclear, requiring more in-depth analysis of the training process used by trainers with focus on the applied methods, means, and training load volumes. The Eurofit test battery proved to be a precise tool to assess changes in the physical fitness of the tested girls after completing the annual training cycle and is therefore worth recommending at early training stage in gymnastics. The results provide useful information in optimizing the training loads of artistic gymnasts at the initial training stage.
Purpose: The main aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of selected simple methods of recording and fast biomechanical analysis performed by judges of artistic gymnastics in assessing a gymnast’s movement technique. Material and methods: The study participants comprised six artistic gymnastics judges, who assessed back handsprings using two methods: a real-time observation method and a frame-by-frame video analysis method. They also determined flexion angles of knee and hip joints using the computer program. Results: In the case of the real-time observation method, the judges gave a total of 5.8 error points with an arithmetic mean of 0.16 points for the flexion of the knee joints. In the high-speed video analysis method, the total amounted to 8.6 error points and the mean value amounted to 0.24 error points. For the excessive flexion of hip joints, the sum of the error values was 2.2 error points and the arithmetic mean was 0.06 error points during real-time observation. The sum obtained using frame-by-frame analysis method equaled 10.8 and the mean equaled 0.30 error points. Conclusions: Error values obtained through the frame-by-frame video analysis of movement technique were higher than those obtained through the real-time observation method. The judges were able to indicate the number of the frame in which the maximal joint flexion occurred with good accuracy. Using the real-time observation method as well as the high-speed video analysis performed without determining the exact angle for assessing movement technique were found to be insufficient tools for improving the quality of judging.
Celem badania była analiza wybranych zachowań, postaw żywieniowych młodych gimnastyczek i koszykarek w szkole mistrzostwa sportowego. Stwierdzono, że 61% dziewcząt spożywało regularnie I śniadanie, 20% II śniadanie, 80% obiad, zaś kolację ok. 60%. Zauważono zbyt małe spożycie ryb, kasz i ryżu, pieczywa razowego i warzyw. Pozytywnym zachowaniem było niskie spożycie żywności typu fast-food, chipsów. Połowa badanych dziewcząt oceniła swoją wiedzę żywieniową i sposób odżywiania się na poziomie dobrym. Dziewczęta z masą ciała 53 kg i poniżej oceniły swoją wiedzę i sposób żywienia jako dobre i bardzo dobre. Po przekąski między posiłkami 52% dziewcząt sięgało „rzadko” zaś około 40% „nigdy”. Dziewczęta wykazały się negatywną postawą wobec własnej sylwetki, co zwiększa ryzyko pojawienia się zaburzeń odżywiania.
The aim of study was to analyze selected nutrition behaviors and attitudes of young athletes from Sport Mastery School. It was found that: 61% girls ate regularly I breakfast, 20% lunch, 80% dinner and about 60% supper. Most often overlooked meal was tea. Observed too small intake of fish, groats, race, whole grain bread, vegetable. Positive behavior was low intake of fast-food and crisps. Half of the respondents assessed their nutrition knowledge on good level. Girls with body weight 53 kg and below decided place nutrition’s knowledge on the level of good and very good. Rarely ate snack 52,0% girls and about 40% never. The girls showed negative attitude towards their own shape.
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