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Applying a metathesis approach (MCl2·xH2O+Na2SnO3·xH2O→MSn(OH)6+NaCl+xH2O), Schoenfliesite-type materials with general formula MSn(OH)6 (where M=Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn or Zn) were synthesized at room-temperature. The high lattice-energy of the by-product alkali halide NaCl drives the reaction in the forward direction leading to the formation of the desired materials. The materials synthesized were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to elucidate structural and micro structural features. [...]
Content available remote Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes: Importance of Chemical Composition and Morphology
The main aspects of the cathode materials morphology for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT SOFC) are considered in this paper. The approaches for estimation of their basic properties, e.g. oxygen mobility and surface reactivity, are described and the results of different techniques (e.g. weight and conductivity relaxation, oxygen isotope exchange) application for studies of powders and dense ceramic materials are compared. The Ruddlesden-Popper type phases (e.g. Pr2NiO4) provide enhanced oxygen mobility due to cooperative mechanism of oxygen interstitial migration. For perovskites, the oxygen mobility is increased by doping, which generates oxygen vacancies or decreases metal-oxygen bond strength. Nonadditive increasing of the oxygen diffusion coefficients found that for perovskite-fluorite nanocomposites, it can be explained by the fast oxygen migration along perovskitefluorite interfaces. Functionally graded nanocomposite cathodes provide the highest power density, the lowest area specific polarization resistance, and the best stability to degradation caused by the surface layer carbonization/ hydroxylation, thus being the most promising for thin film IT SOFC design.
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