The article deals with the capabilities of archaeology and its cooperative scientific disciplines in the study of expressions of protohistorical collective identities’ ethnicity which are rather limited. Nowadays, we have considerable problems with ethnicity of a large group of tribes, the main bearers of the LaTène culture, although considerably numerous historical, linguistic, epigraphic, palaeographic, iconographic and other sources are also available here. Despite this fact, we know that the Celtic tribes were aware of their related identity. Although not all LaTène culture bearers were necessarily Celts, most of them were; at the same time, not all Celtic tribes maintained this culture after being included into the Antique world. We know that also tribes called Germanic were aware of their related identity. It is documented by the facts that they all spoke mutually understandable languages originating from Proto-German and shared very close mythology. Material culture of individual Germanic tribes is rather significant and, in many cases, typical of a tribe; however, in contact with the Roman Empire and the Huns, mainly their elites gave up their tribal and ethnic identity. A large group of tribes was called Sclavini, Anti, Veneti by antique authors of the 6th c. and documented under their own names – Slovene, slovenski narod, slovensko plemja since the 9th c., although they simultaneously used numerous tribal or regional names. Archaeologically, these oldest Slavs are represented by three related cultures – Prague, Penkovka and Koločin, which are interpreted as historically known Sclaveni, Antes and Veneti, from which individual branches of the Slavs developed.