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The article presents the results of studies upon metals (Pb, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Co) in bottom sediments and in various parts of the aquatic plants taken from the Bug river (Poland). The metal contents in the examined environmental elements were determined by AAS technique. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of metals in bottom sediments and macrophytes (root, stem, leaf) occurring in the Bug river. It was hypothesized that the heavy metal content in plant tissues reflects the amount of metals in sediments. It has been shown that the average metal distribution in the examined plants present in the Bug river and bottom sediments was as follows: Pb, Zn, Co, and Cu sediments>root>leaf>stem, while in the case of Ni and Cr, the contents were greater in roots than in sediment (root>sediment>leaf>stem), although the differences in contents were not large. The study showed that most metals are present in roots and only a small part of them is transported to the stem and leaves. The size of the metal movement within plants may depend on their contents. It was found that for Ni, Cr and Cu in 2014, the bioaccumulation factor was above one, which confirms the high efficiency of metals uptake from the environment as evidenced by statistical analysis. Bioaccumulation factor (BF) was smaller than one for Pb, Co and Zn, confirming the high ability to retain metals in the root. Aquatic plants are an effective barrier for the surface water by accumulating heavy metals in their biomass. Macrophytes are proposed to monitor the river pollution.
The authors investigated the influence of 9 species of aquatic plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Elodea canadensis, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Lemna minor, Nuphar luteum, Potamogeton natans, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Sparganium ramosum, Stratiotes aloides) on the occurrence of aquatic zoosporic fungus species in the water of three water bodies of different trophy. The fewest fungi were noted in the containers with Potamogeton natans (9), Elodea canadensis (15) and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae (16), the most in containers with Sparganium ramosum (23), Lemna minor (24) and Nuphar luteum (25). More fungi were found to grow in the containers with 7 plants than in the controls (the mean ratio of Co/Pl ranged from 1.7/3.7 to 6.7/8.7). However, for Potamogeton natans and Sparganium ramosum, control samples contained more fungus species. The mean ratio for the samples with Potamogeton natans was 5.7/2.7 and with Sparganium ramosum – 6.3/5.4.
Phytoremediation is considered of a cost effective and environmentally friendly technology and has been used successfully for the remediation of soils and water contaminated with various pollutants. Specifically for full scale application to treat industrial wastewater, phytoremediation is used as sole technology for different types of wetlands. However, phytoremediation of polluted water in wetland type reactor has been mostly studied as black box. The method to measure the performance is only based on pollutant removal efficiency and there is very limited information available about of the pollutant removal mechanisms and process dynamics in these systems. Thus, the aim of this chapter was to briefly review basic processes of phytoremediation, its mechanisms and parameters, and its interaction between rhizo-remediation and microbe-plant. In addition, this chapter also elaborated phytoremediation challenges and strategies for full-scale application, its techniques to remove both organic and inorganic contaminants by aquatic plants in water, and some examples of applications in industries.
The estimation of the protein content and amino acid composition under the influence of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag) for seven species of aquatic macrophytes: Limnobium laevigatum (Humb. & Bonpl.ExWilld.), Pistia stratiotes L., Salvinia natans L., Elodea canadensis Michx., Najas guadelupensis (Spreng.) Magnus, Vallisneria spiralis L. and Riccia fluitans L. was conducted. The plants were exposed during 7 days on the experimental solutions of metal nanoparticles at the rate of 1 g of plant per 100 ml of the mixture of stock colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Mn – 0.75 mg/l, Cu – 0.37 mg/l, Zn – 0.44 mg/l, Ag+, Ag2O – 0.75 mg/l) diluted 200 times. In the five investigated species, reduction of the protein content was observed. However, this indicator remained stable only in P. stratiotes (52 mg/ml) and, conversely, increased in V. spiralis (46 mg/ml to 51 mg/ml). The content of the studied amino acids in N. guadelupensis decreased by 46% (from 112.05 mmol/g to 60.15 mmol/g), in R. fluitans – by 44% (from 104.06 mmol/g to 58.25 mmol/g), in S. natans – by 23% (from 90.08 mmol/g to 69.59 mmol/g), in E. canadensis – by 10% (from 143.92 mmol/g to 129.4 mmol/g), and in P. stratiotes as well as in L. laevigatum – by 8% (from 210.65 mmol /g to 193.77 mmol/g and with 155.0 mmol/g to 142.60 mmol/g), but in V. spiralis, on the contrary, increased by 7% (from 91.31 mmol/g to 97.59 mmol/g). Changes in the composition and content of amino acids for each species of aquatic plant were analyzed. It was suggested that the studied plants, which belong to different families, have different defense mechanisms, according to which the amino acid composition of plants varies.
The study of bottom sediments and organs of Sparganium erectum carried out in the summer of 2014 in the city of Lębork, located in Northern Poland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the content of macroelements and heavy metals in the leaves, rhizomes and roots S. erectum and in bottom sediments of the Łeba River as well as comparison of accumulation and translocation factors of N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn, Fe, Cd and Cr in researched organs of aquatic plant. The use of S. erectum for biomonitoring and phytoremediation has also been considered. The results of Mann Whitney U test showed a number of statistically significant differences in the content of chemical elements in the leaves, rhizomes, roots and in bottom sediments. The macroelements are mainly accumulated in leaves and heavy metals are accumulated in roots and rhizomes of S. erectum. Increased Mn and Fe content in roots and rhizomes of S. erectum, in relation this physiological needs, refers to the beneficial effects of this species in the water treatment and sludge from the bottom sediment of manganese and iron compounds. The obtained bioconcentration and translocation factors values allowed to state that S. erectum can be used for phytoremediation of contaminated bottom sediments because retains metals in their roots and limit Mn and Fe mobility from roots and rhizomes to leaves once absorbed by roots of plant.
Observations of aquatic plants and marshland plants were conducted in an artificially formed fen, within the old basin of Skawinka river, in a municipal park located in the southwest part of Skawina town. The area selected for the study was determined based on the location of plant stands, representative for the whole body of water. Based on the analysis of the locations where the aquatic and marshland plants occurred, observations were made of selected species. When making the selection, we were guided by the criterion of the potential suitability of using these plants in garden plantings, planned subsequently. We have marked the locations of particular plant communities, and then applied them on the situational and altitude map, in the scale of 1:500 [Czarnota 1997], which is the basis for the design and planting in the area.
Obserwacje roślinności bagiennej i wodnej prowadzono na terenie sztucznie powstałego zalewiska na obszarze starego dorzecza rzeki Skawinki, w parku miejskim położonym w południowo zachodniej części Skawiny. Wybrany teren badań określono na podstawie zlokalizowania stanowisk grup roślin reprezentatywnych dla całego akwenu. Na podstawie analizy stanowisk występowania zespołów roślinności bagiennej i wodnej, przeprowadzono obserwacje fenologiczne wybranych gatunków. Przy wyborze kierowano się kryterium potencjalnej przydatności do zastosowania ich w późniejszych, planowanych nasadzeniach ogrodowych. Dokonano oznaczenia miejsc występowania poszczególnych zbiorowisk roślin, a następnie naniesiono je na mapkę sytuacyjno – wysokościową wykonaną w skali 1:500 [Czarnota 1997] będącą podstawą do zaprojektowania i obsadzenia roślinami tego terenu.
The importance of the Hyphomycetes Fungi Imperfecti stems from their crucial role in purifying both flowing and standing waters, which can balance the effects of eutrophication. The purpose of the present work was to analyze Hyphomycetes populations in the 11 fish ponds, each with different leaves and dead plant composition. The research was carried out in autumn 2001 and spring 2002. We investigated water samples from fish farms in Northeastern Poland. In breeding the fungi some water plants and bulrushes from the ponds were used. We discovered 79 species of Fungi Imperfecti. Eight of which appeared to be new to Northeastern Poland. In addition, pathogenic species: Alternatria sp. and Fusarium sp. were also found. The most optimum conditions for the Hyphomycetes representatives were found in the ponds overgrown by numerous water plants and bulrushes. It confirms that saprophytic Fungi Imperfecti play an active role in decomposition of dead plants, and purification of each pond’s water. Keywords: Hyphomycetes fungi, plants, ponds.
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