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Content available remote The Prague School on a global scale  : a Coup d’œil from the East
This essay compares the evolution of the “Prague doctrine” described in Ondřej Sládek’s The Metamorphoses of Prague School Structural Poetics (2015) with similar developments in literary theory in Eastern Europe (from Russian formalism to the Tartu-Moscow School of Semiotics). The author proposes a transnational approach to the study of the typology and history of literary theories and outlines, in partial agreement with Sládek, several cross-cultural transfers of theoretical concepts and research tools from linguistics to literary theory and structural anthropology and further to semiotics and cultural studies. As an addition to Sládek’s overview of the evolution of structural poetics, this essay points to facts that serve as evidence for a parallel, sometimes interrelated, development of structural poetics and cultural semiotics in the former Czechoslovakia and the former Soviet Union. The author also addresses the issue of the (inter)national character of academic work and the ontological status of terms such as the “French”, “Russian”, “Estonian” and “Czech theories”.
The paper The Fictions of Literary Criticism refers to a polemic between Manfred Kridl and Waclaw Borowy which was conducted in several articles published in the years 1936–1957. The polemic played a significant role in the development of modern Polish literary criticism. The matter of dispute was a new method of literary criticism announced by Kridl in his renowned Introduction to the Research of Literary Work (1936). The main topics of the discussion were the problems of the literary process, the evaluation of a literary work and the uses of scientific methods in humanities. The paper’s author pays attention especially to the rhetorical and literary means of argumentation which were used in the creation of this unusual form of non-fiction.
In this paper we try to recover for contemporary critical debate the notion of skaz elaborated by literary theorist Boris Eikhenbaum. For this, we will study four different texts written between 1918 and 1925. In them we will try to appreciate an evolution that leads from a certain initial “essentialismˮ (the voice as the hidden essence of the narrative) to a much more historicist and relativist position, in which it is especially important how skaz appears and is combined with other techniques and procedures in each concrete literary context, in order to produce the effect of “deautomatisation.” In this way, it seems to us that the notion of skaz can still make a valid contribution in the ongoing discussions about the forms of oral transmission of literature, and its radical potential for resistance in contexts of cultural inequality and oppression.
The text focuses on the question of the transfer and translation of several Formalist concepts, such as ostranenie and tochka zrenia. The interpretation is based on Boris Uspensky’s A Poetics of Composition, it revisits the original definition provided Viktor Shklovsky and illustrates it by the work of the German photographer Barbara Probst.
Text se věnuje problematice transferu a překladu několika pojmů (ostraněnije, točka zrenija a dalších) ruské formální školy. Interpretace pojmů vychází z knihy Borise Uspenského Poetika kompozice, vrací se zpět k původnímu konceptu Viktora Šklovského a ilustruje je pomocí tvorby německé fotografky Barbary Probst.
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