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The aim of this text is a view of the widowhood of Caroline Collalto née Apponyi through the optics of her received correspondence and preserved documents. The attention is paid to her economic life and stability during widowhood, her social connections and activities influenced by the inherited mental illness. It also describes her childhood and the years of her marriage which influenced her later widowhood, on the other hand only marginal attention is paid to the aristocratic rituals or to the political situation during her life. Her case is an example of how the aristocratic widowhood in the second half of the 19th century could look like.
The study is dedicated to a little-known but important member of the Zay family, Count Albert Zay (1825–1904), who followed in the footsteps of his father, Count Karol Zay (1797–1871). They were alike – active opinion leaders, important players in the political life of Hungary and entrepreneurs at a family estate of Uhrovec. The author focuses on the family of Count Albert Zay, his military career and business activities. Count Albert Zay took over from his father the management of a cloth manufactory and the vast country estate of Uhrovec in 1857. He had to look for new, more efficient business opportunities. First he mechanised and therefore streamlined a traditional craft in the region by setting up a factory for the production of shoe nails in 1870. This was followed by the complete liquidation of the cloth manufactory, which was no longer profitable and by the arrival of a new investor, the glassmaking company from Vienna Joseph Schreiber and cousins. Count Albert‘s next family business project was a factory for producing walking sticks in 1876. In Slovakia, the Hungarian and German aristocratic families, including the Zay family, completely disappeared from historical memory after 1945 due to radical political and social changes. Their enterprising and sometimes innovative members, among them the protagonist of our story Count Albert Zay were lost in the fog of the past.
The study is a sounding into the family festivities of one of the most important families in Early Modern Hungary, the Esterhazys. The picture of the wedding ritual is supplemented with examples from other aristocratic families. Aristocratic weddings were one of the important instruments of the family policy and a potential source of increased power. The Palatine Nicholas Esterhazy was a great strategist in the field of marriage in the first half of the 17th century. It is difficult to imagine that he would have gained the office of Palatine without his two advantageous marriages. Nicholas Esterhazy conceived a family policy, in the context of which he planned the marriages of his descendants. He also organized and supported marriages at his court. Thanks to these marriages, he created a whole net of relationships at his court and in the counties where his properties were situated. Apart from marital politics, the study also examines the actual practices connected with wedding in this period, from engagement and banns to the actual ceremony.
Content available remote K pozemkové výbavě české nobility ve starším středověku
Around the mid–10th century Boleslav I. united the whole of Bohemia under the rule of one prince. He, thus, established the foundations of the Bohemian medieval state, which had to cope, in the initial stages of its development, with a number of systemic problems, primarily with limited economic opportunities and a lack of a more developed economic market. „The state“ represented by this Prince from the Przemyslid dynasty, therefore, took specific measures to ensure its proper functioning. It relied on the support of a class of „noble Czechs“. By conferring benefices (beneficia) on them, the Prince, entrusted to their care not merely the administration of his castles (civitates, urbes), which formed the backbone of „state“ administration, but also granted them other positions at the Prague court and in the provinces. These comites, nobiles, primates, milites, primores and so on, could not yet base their claims to power on their large landed estates and they relied primarily on their positions at the court and in the provinces. They primarily lived on their share of princely incomes and revenues. In recent times some historians have returned to earlier opinions which claimed that the early nobility in Bohemia and Moravia (10th–12th centuries) had relied on large landed possessions partly acquired, it is said, in the period before the unification of Czech territory. At the same time, it is suggested that there was a partial continuity with the traditional „pre-state“ aristocracy, possibly with the „Bohemian dukes“ (duces Boemanorum), who shared Czech territory in the 9th century and at the beginning of the 10th century (in the year 845 there were at least 14 princes). They disappeared from the stage of history with the Big Bang foundation of a unified „state“. Relatively large land possessions were also supposed to guarantee to these nobles their strong position and influence with regard to the Prince. The current study questions these views and presents other arguments as to why the possessions of the early nobility could only emerge as a result of princely service and „state“ administration. Principally, larger noble estates could have barely been accommodated there. Early settlement sites covered no more than 15–20% of the area of current Bohemia and the possessions of both the Prince and the Church dominated, with Church posssessions being derived almost exclusively from the princely benefices. If the properties of comites, primates, nobiles, milites and others can be documented, they were limited and dispersed before the mid–12th century. They were usually transferred into the hands of „lay persons“ (Church terminology) from originally all embracing princely ownership of land, often in the form of a gift of land for life (the so-called grant of benefice), the disposal of which was subject to the Prince’s consent. At times, it is pointed out that the early nobility was able to found monasteries, which would have reflected its economic strength, yet these were outright exceptions before the mid–12th century (Sedlec, Podlažice). Only after the mid–12th century were there better preconditions for the establishment and construction of larger landed estates on the part of the foremost noble families. The Czech Lands and the whole of Central Europe underwent a period of transformation and modernisation, accompanied by urbanisation, the development of exchange and the spread of minted coins. Society underwent changes and the nobility naturally changed also. A mighty wave of colonisation led to the settlement of not merely the hinterland plains and undulating countryside, but in Bohemia it also penetrated as far as the foothills of the border mountains. Foremost noble families put roots down in the newly settled territories and transferred the focus of their property interests there. In these places the conditions were ripe for the establishment of a new kind of dependence structures, the lord on one hand and the serf on the other. At the same time the circulation of chieftains in lucrative positions gradually slowed down. Their material possessions slowly overflowed into a qualitatively new „landed“ nobility (sometimes this is referred to as a so-called „privatisation“). No longer a position or a benefice but one’s landed estate dictated its owner’s influence, power and social status. These tendencies strengthened in the later stages of the 13th century. There appeared huge landed dominia belonging to a number of noble families who flourished in princely service such as the Hrabische family, the Witigonen family, the Markwartinger family. Yet, others, especially the second ranking milites and partially those yeomen who managed to preserve a certain independence, clamoured for better financial security in the newly settled terrritories. The above gave rise to a future lesser nobility. At the same time, the value of an estate held came to be assessed more rationally. It was no longer its area but its profitability, which became the determining criterion, also reflected in price relations (sale, purchase, exchange). In these processes the nobility attained features, which came to characterise it for the remainder of the Middle Ages: large landed ownership and political unification in a common „Land community“ (communitas, in the words of the chronicler Dalimil – a fence), forming a counterbalance to the ruling power.
The aim of the study is to present the aims, content, course and results of foreign study tours by aristocrats from the Kingdom of Hungary in the early modern period, specifically in the case of the representatives of the Palffy family. The parents of young aristocrats expended considerable financial resources so that their offspring could be educated in the best schools at home, and could later go on tours of foreign countries. The most popular destinations for Hungarian noblemen were usually Germany and Italy. Only the richest could afford a Grand Tour according to foreign examples, involving travel through various countries and education at so-called knight's academies. Young men aiming at a church career studied theology at leading theology faculties, among which the most famous and prestigious was the Collegium Germanicum et Hungaricum in Rome.
The Bohemian medieval state was composed of two major territories: Bohemia and Moravia from the beginning of the 11th century. Their rather unique relationship went through several stages, during which the character of a united monarchy strengthened on the one side, on the other side both 'lands' (terrae) formed themselves as independent entities with their own territory, their own aristocratic estates and their own internal administration and organization. Whereas a hereditary royal title was attached to Bohemia from the end of the 12th century, Moravia then gradually, although only from the second quarter of the 13th century, consciously formed itself into a margraviate. The linchpin, which welded Bohemia with Moravia together was the King of Bohemia. As the ranks of the ruling Bohemian dynasty dramatically thinned towards the end of the Przemyslid period (from the mid-13th century until 1306), the King of Bohemia became simultaneously the holder of the title Margrave of Moravia.
When studying early state organisms in Central Europe (Bohemia, Poland, Hungary), specialist literature often uses terms such as landed 'property', ''possession' and 'tenure', without researchers simultaneously asking what qualitative features these 'properties' had in the 10th - 12th centuries and to what degree their holder could freely and fully dispose of them. To put it in other words, the question is whether and how the ruler's sovereignty over the country and its population manifested itself. This study also makes use of non-traditional methods of history of settlement and it re-visits the question of which routes led to the formation of large aristocratic estates in the Earlier Middle Ages. Its conclusions contribute to the discussion on both the nature of early Central European monarchies and the preconditions, which initiated their profound 13th century transformation.
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