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Content available remote PERCEPTIONS ON INEQUALITY AND ON THE CAUSES OF POVERTY IN SLOVAKIA
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EN
In this paper, popular perceptions on inequality and on the causes of poverty in Slovakia are analysed. The paper begins with the assumption that recognising popular perceptions will enable us to identify how socially marginalized people are represented in our society and what kinds of social policy measures are perceived as appropriate by the public. Our theoretical concept is based on a two dimensional typology with four basic types of poverty explanation: 1. individual blame or blaming-the-poor approach, 2. social blame or blaming-the-state approach, 3. individual fate and 4. social fate. In addition to an empirical analysis, an assessment is made as to whether perceptions are shaped by basic principles present in the judgment process (self-interest, i.e. the underdog principle, or enlightenment principle). The dynamics of changes in public opinion are examined through available comparative datasets (European Values Study 1991 and 1999, Society 2004). The results show that the individual socio-economic position has an effect on the preferred explanation of poverty causes. The higher the socio-economic position, the more stigmatising the opinion.
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Content available remote GENDERED HOUSEWORK. A CROSS-EUROPEAN ANALYSIS
51%
EN
The paper focuses on the factors which influence the sharing of domestic work in European countries. Many previous studies have offered explanations on the individual level, taking into account only individual characteristics when predicting a spouse's contribution to chores. Using multilevel regression models, we try to combine the individual-level and country-level factors in order to draw an explanatory model for the gendered sharing of housework within couples across the European societies. The analysis provides support for most of the theories we have tested. The resource theory and the dependency/bargaining hypothesis were confirmed: in a couple, when one of the partners has more resources or a better status, the other spouse uses relatively more hours for the housework. On the other hand, religious and gender values play an important role: the more secular and more oriented towards gender equality a couple is in thinking, the more equally the partners share their housework. However, on the average, all over the world, women spend more hours on housework than men do. The country-level indicators seem to be less important, but the societies which are more affluent, less materialist societies, post-communist societies, societies where women are more present in public life, and those where Catholicism is not the dominant religion are characterized by a more equalitarian sharing of the housework.
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