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The author considers in detail the attitude of political subjects and regional communities to decentralization of state power. Texts of the programs of political parties and a discourse of political applications of representatives of different political forces have been analyzed. Special attention is concentrated on the analysis of results of the population inquiries concerning the expansion of rights of the regions and local communities. The results permit speaking about specificity of decentralization estimation (as political interest) by political subjects and regional communities. If for the former rather separate components of power decentralization are of practical interest than federation of the country as a whole. Then for population of a number of regions the autonomism is rather the self-defense. The autonomistic interests, more expressed in certain regions, are determined by the external (attitude to the union of Ukraine with Russia and Belarus, prospects of joining NATO) and language factors. But results of the inquiry of people from AP of the Crimea permit supposing that the autonomy in the Crimea is not the efficient mechanism for realization of interests of the Crimean regional community.
The Kashubian Institute - a society of scholars connected in various ways with Kashubia and Pomerania - was grounded in Gdansk in 1996. Among its founders and members are scholars from different academic centres in Poland and abroad; a majority of them represent the humanities. The aims of the Institute comprise initiation and conducting of scientific research, publishing activity and supporting young scholars. To date, achievements of the KI include scores of conferences and over a hundred publications, such as basic works on the history and sociology of Kashubians, biographies of outstanding Kashubian activists and writers, volumes of prose and poetry, as well as memoirs and monographs of tows and villages. The Institute, with the help of external financial assistance, cooperates with the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association and the Museum of Kashubian-Pomeranian Literature and Music in Wejherowo as well as with other similar institutions in Poland and Europe, also with Kashubian communities in America. An important part of the activity of the KI is collaboration with teachers within the scope of regional education - not only in Kashubia but also other regions of Pomerania. The 'trademark' of the KI is the yearbook 'Acta Cassubiana'.
Since the 1980s Polish science has been showing a growing interest in regional problems. In the past decades the social identity of individuals and communities became thoroughly altered under the influence of systemic changes and widening systems of relations and contexts of functioning linked to the intensifying impact of globalisation. In contemporary sociology regions and regional identity are phenomena representing a correlate of social awareness. 'Lubelszczyzna' is a historical region mostly perceived at present as a geographical or administrative unit that cannot be characterized in the categories of distinct ethnic or ethnographic features. The population of Lubelskie province has not developed regional awareness and in this sense this province is not a proto-region in which the awareness-shaping processes have started. It should rather be seen as a region 'in statu nascendi', in which the awareness-shaping processes have begun but are far from becoming consolidated. 'Lubelszczyzna' is characterised by a relatively weak and diluted regional identity. It is not clear whether the awareness of the region's inhabitants is shaped to the degree allowing them to identify themselves not only with the area closest to their place of residence but also with the entire region.
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