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1
Content available remote Standardní čeština a korpus
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EN
The use of Common Czech in the media is continually growing, and it is quite natural that issues of the standard norm are discussed in Czech linguistic journals. Since the time of Vilem Mathesius, linguists have been aware that the norm of Standard Czech or its codification has moved unduly far from everyday usage. This makes it urgently necessary to pay systematic attention to colloquial usage and to recognize the existence of a transitional zone of oscillation between Standard and Common Czech. The present growth of computer-accessible language resources makes it possible to base the studies on larger sets of data, but conclusions should not be drawn without appropriate regard to the findings presented in contributions based on data from spoken language.
EN
Using the preposition 'bez' (without), these clauses explicitly express action whose non-realisation is significant for the mode of (un)realisation of the action of the main clause, cf. 'Divku pozdravil bez toho, aby se ji dotkl'. (He greeted the girl without touching her.). The author deals with the attitudes of Czech linguists toward these new competitors of the preposition 'aniz', the frequency of the sentences with the connectives 'bez toho, aby/ze' in contemporary Czech. The article also characterises the position of these subordinate clauses in the system of the Czech language from the point of view of their relationship to standard Czech.
3
Content available remote O tzv. české diglosii v současném světě
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EN
This article considers the development of the definitions of diglossia and diglossic language communities from Ferguson's original 1959 proposal through to the present day and their bearing on Czech. Czech has often been proposed as an example of diglossia, and this article tests some of these definitions against the Czech language situation in Bohemia, bringing to bear examples of current usage from a variety of situations, including television, advertising, business meetings, and e-mail. The examples demonstrate the degree to which features of different codes are intermingled in speech and writing in a way proscribed under descriptions of diglossia. They also testify to growth in new means of communication that mix features of the high and low varieties. The current Czech language situation is thus analysed as 'post-diglossic', with many of the attitudes and beliefs associated with diglossia still persisting in the Czech environment, while actual language usage exhibits diglossic patterns in an ever-narrowing range of communicative situations.
EN
The subject of this study is confrontational description of similarities of the phonological system of standard Czech and Slovak in broader Slavonic context. The analysis has shown that the both languages belong to transitional type, which is situated in between lateral consonantal and vocalic types. In the three cited types, which represent the division of Slavonic languages from point of view of phonological typology, are not equally reflected internal tendencies of development inherited from Old Slavonic, but also its own development tendencies. The author also deals with unambiguous evaluation of some phonological phenomenon in modern Czech, which is conditioned by different theoretic-methodological approach to evaluation of these phenomena. Contemporary Czech linguistics withdraws from „prescription“ or from regulation of the language based on stated usage, and Czech linguists prefer description of real present condition of the language, so they study the language and describe what is it like, and how it can be recognized in real texts. Despite the fact that confrontational description of Czech and Slovak languages, much attention has been devoted to, there was not compared phonological system of both languages from typological point of view. The author was inspired by the typological analyses of Slavonic phonological systems by A. Isačenko - outstanding linguist and expert on Slavonic of Russian origin, who remarkably contributed to development of Czech and Slovak Slavistics. This theme is very topical because in phonological system of Czech, within about last thirty years, relations in vocalic and consonantic were principally revaluated. It is related to this fact that reinforcement of systemic position of several originally peripheral elements, which manifested itself in the point that statute of „fenoma“ was gained by more peripheral phenomena in vocalic as well as in consonantic subsystem which were evaluated as combinatory variants according to older conception. At the same time the description of some units of phonological system became more profound from the theoretical point of view.
5
Content available remote Analýza článků Františka Čermáka věnovaných jazykové kultuře
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EN
This article is concerned with texts by Frantisek Cermak devoted to issues of Czech language cultivation. Four major topics are analyzed: standard vs. common Czech, written vs. spoken Czech, prescriptivism and the native language of Czechs. Various problems in the analyzed texts result from an unclear methodological background. Many concepts are used without argumentation: Cermak fails to substantiate their suitability for his language description. We can find uncorroborated generalizations which can be interpreted as Cermak's communicative strategy. Many statements are rather impressionistic and are not based on relevant language observations. With regard to these findings, the author of this paper argues that a deep-reaching dialogue should be held, which may help to clarify the indeterminate situation in Czech linguistics concerning issues of language cultivation.
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