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Content available remote Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players
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EN
Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg), with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER) and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR) during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.
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Objectives:To determine the magnitude, distribution and associated ergonomic factors of upper extremities musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD) among workers of electronic assembly in Thailand. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. 591 of 853 workers in an electronic and electrical appliance assembly factory in Bangkok, Thailand, participated in this study. A self-administered questionnaire consisting of demographic data and ergonomic factors was collected from October 2010 to January 2011. Clinical examination of each worker was performed by an occupational physician. The criteria for diagnosis of UEMSD came as a result of a consensus reached by a group of orthopedists. The associated factors were analyzed using a multiple logistic regression. Results: The point prevalence of clinically diagnosed UEMSD was as follows: radial styloid tenosynovitis - 13.03% (95% CI: 10.31-15.75), trigger finger - 9.48% (95% CI: 7.11-11.84), carpal tunnel syndrome - 8.12% (95% CI: 5.91-10.33), lateral epicondylitis - 3.38% (95% CI: 1.92-4.85), and medial epicondylitis - 1.69% (95% CI: 0.65-2.73), respectively. The adjusted odds ratio with statistical significance associated with UEMSD was as follows: high force of wrist - 1.78 (95% CI: 1.06-2.99), awkward posture of wrist - 2.37 (95% CI: 1.28-4.37) and contact stress at wrists - 1.75 (95% CI: 1.02-3.00) to develop radial styloid tenosynovitis. For trigger finger, the ratios were awkward posture of fingers - 2.09 (95% CI: 1.12-3.90) and contact stress on finger - 1.86 (95% CI: 1.04-3.34). For medial epicondylitis, it was an awkward posture of using elbows - 3.14 (95% CI: 1.10-8.95). However, this study did not find any associations between repetitive motion and any UEMSD. Conclusions: UEMSD are most commonly found in electronic assembly workers. The relevant parties should provide comprehensive ergonomic resolution for these workers.
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Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the functional changes in the upper extremity of the intact side of hemiplegic patients within 0-12 months after stroke. Material and methods The study included 32 individuals with Stage 3 and Stage 4 progression according to Brunnstrom stages, whose right side was dominant. The age range of the individuals in the study was 45-80 years. This research was a prospective study planned according to the single group pretest-post test pattern. There was no control group. Results As a result of the study, it was determined that pain increased in the shoulder region of the non-affected side during the one-month follow-up period and therefore, upper extremity functionality decreased. After one month, strength values of grip, shoulder flexion (left intact), shoulder extension, shoulder abduction (right intact), shoulder internal rotation, shoulder external rotation (left intact), elbow flexion, elbow extension, and wrist extension increased. Furthermore, during this follow-up period upper extremity functionality decreased, pain values increased in the shoulder area, and hand grip strength values increased in individuals whose disease duration was 0-6 months and 7-12 months. Conclusions The non-affected upper extremity of a stroke patient plays an important role in helping them throughout the activities of their daily life. This study concluded that, upper extremities of the non-affected side of hemiplegic patients are also affected in terms of muscle strength, pain and functionality.
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The aim of this research was to develop a theoretical method for the ergonomic optimization of the work space of the upper limb. This method is based on a model of the upper extremity with 7 degrees of freedom. It consists of 3 rigid elements modeling the arm, forearm, and hand and 34 upper extremity muscles. The trunk is considered immobile. The shoulder joint is modeled as a rotating kinematics pair of third class, the elbow and wrist joints - of fourth class. The minimum sum of muscle force moments in the joints and soft saturation muscle cooperation criterion were used as merit criteria. The developed method makes it possible to effectively solve, in a defined work space, the task of work space optimization.
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between time-frequency, time and frequency measures when considering various upper extremity positions below the level of the shoulder and in trapezius as well as deltoideus muscles. During the experiment, 15 subjects performed a task that involved screwing and unscrewing a screw cap on a board in six different locations, i.e., there were six upper extremity positions. Variables were calculated in the time, frequency and time-frequency domains on a recorded EMG signal. The results showed that parameters analyzed in the time-frequency domain were more sensitive to changes in position than parameters analyzed in the frequency domain.
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The aim of this study was to determine biomechanical loads and subjective stresses on lumber graders and associated morbidity in a high risk and repetitive sawmill occupation. The exposures of all 29 male sawmill worker volunteers were recorded. Motion and posture were studied with electrogoniometers, muscle loads were recorded with surface electromyography, and psychophysical stresses were assessed with subjective responses. Fifty-nine percent of the participants reported greater than moderate discomfort in their taskdominant upper extremity. Job performance required an average range of motion of 44º, 21º, and 52º in flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviations, and pronation/supination respectively. It also required an average of 9% maximum voluntary contraction force and was repeated an average of 34 times/min. This repetitive exertion over an 8-h shift was deemed to be a significant risk factor associated with prevalent upper extremity morbidity.
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Fatigue is an unavoidable part of a basketball game, which may affect an athlete’s performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of upper extremity fatigue on grip strength and passing accuracy in basketball, and ascertain if the effects of different fatigue protocols on grip strength and passing accuracy are the same. Twenty-four juniors under 18 years old (age: 16.75 ± 0.62 years; body height: 184.5 ± 3.31 cm; body mass: 77.25 ± 3.22 kg) volunteered to participate in the study, and were divided into two groups. After a warm-up, both groups performed the basketball passing test and grip strength was recorded for each group under three different testing conditions: rest, 70% and 90% exercise intensity. The protocol used for the first group was the chest press, and for the second group the wrist curls. Results show that after the upper extremity fatigue protocol all parameters of the study (grip strength and passing accuracy) showed a significant decrease, and there was no significant difference between both groups regarding grip strength and passing accuracy. The study suggested that in order to avoid upper extremity fatigue, basketball trainers and coaches need to include upper extremity conditioning exercises into their training sessions.
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Background The authors aimed to explore carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among electronic sports (esports) athletes, to compare hand symptoms and their severity between esports athletes and the control group and within the esports athletes, and to study the relationship between esports athletes’ variables. Material and Methods A cross-sectional survey study via telephone with systematic randomized approach was used for esport athletes sampling. Control group were non-esports athletes who do not use computer for prolonged duration. The survey consisted of sports athletes’ characteristics, hand symptoms and functions, and the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). The unpaired student’s t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were utilised for statistical comparison, with p < 0.05. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests were used for relationship analyses. Results Eligible participants were 198 out of 229. Compared to control group, esport athletes reported more CTS (p = 0.01), and radiated pain and numbness in their hands (p = 0.05). Males complained of hand symptoms (p < 0.01) and its radiation (p < 0.01) more than females among esports athletes. Higher BCTQ Symptom Severity Scale (BCTQ-SSS) scores were reported for esports athletes who had been playing esports for prolonged periods compared to those who had playing recently (p = 0.003), with a moderate positive correlation (+0.59, p = 0.004). A significant moderate positive correlation was reported for BCTQ Functional Severity Symptoms (BCTQ-FSS) scores in terms of hours of playing (+0.44, p = 0.04). Esports athletes who used armrests and a PC with a controller for gaming reported less hand symptoms and had milder BCTQ scores than those who used a PC with a keyboard/mouse. Generally, esports athletes spend 5–10 h/day on gaming. Conclusions Esports athletes might be at risk of developing upper-extremity nerve compression and CTS. Prolonged playing, hours of playing, type of esports device, and using armrests are possible risk factors.
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Introduction. Muscle strength weakness is the main symptom limiting motor skills in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This literature review focuses on the effects of upper limb strength training (ST) in children with CP. Materials and methods. The literature review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA Statement guidelines. To verify the effectiveness of ST, medical databases were screened using keywords: cerebral palsy, strength training, resistance training, upper limb, upper extremity. Studies were divided into two categories involving strength training alone and strength training in combination with another therapeutic intervention. Results. Nineteen publications were found, 9 of which were included in the final analysis: 4 randomised studies, 1 non-randomised study and 4 case studies. The results are presented in tabular form according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health at the activity and participation levels. The analyzed studies used: ST as a stand-alone intervention, ST along with electrostimulation and ST in combination with botulinum toxin injections. Conclusions. Based on the reviewed studies it is not possible to define precise upper limb ST guidelines in a group of children with CP due to heterogeneity in the studies regarding: training type, intensity and duration. There is a need to establish the specific characteristics of patients with CP and the training protocol. This would maximize the benefits of this type of training at the level of activity and participation in daily life of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health.
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Wstęp: Osłabienie siły mięśniowej jest jednym z kluczowych objawów ograniczających motorykę u pacjentów z mózgowym porażeniem dziecięcym (MPD). Przeprowadzony przegląd piśmiennictwa skupia się na efektach treningu siłowego (TS) kończyn górnych u dzieci z MPD. Materiał i Metody: Przegląd piśmiennictwa przeprowadzono zgodnie z wytycznymi PRISMA Statement. W celu weryfikacji skuteczności TS przeszukano wybrane medyczne bazy danych używając słów kluczowych: mózgowe porażenie dziecięce, trening siłowy, kończyna górna. Badania podzielono na dwie kategorie, te w których występuje sam trening siłowy oraz te, w których trening siłowy jest połączony z inną interwencją terapeutyczną. Wyniki: Znaleziono 19 publikacji, z których do końcowej analizy włączono 9 prac: 4 badania randomizowane, 1 badanie inne niż randomizowane i 4 analizy przypadku. Wyniki przedstawiono w formie tabelarycznej zgodnie z Międzynarodową Klasyfikacją Funkcjonowania, Niepełnosprawności i Zdrowia na poziomach: struktury i funkcji, aktywności oraz partycypacji. W analizowanych badaniach wykorzystywano: TS jako samodzielną interwencję, TS wraz z elektrostymulacją oraz TS w połączeniu z iniekcjami toksyny botulinowej. Wnioski: Na podstawie przeanalizowanych badań nie można określić precyzyjnych wytycznych TS kończyn górnych w grupie dzieci z MPD z powodu zbyt dużej różnorodności badań w zakresie typu treningu, jego intensywności i czasu trwania. Istnieje konieczność ustalenia charakterystyki pacjentów z MPD i protokołu treningowego, które pozwolą na osiągnięcie maksymalnych korzyści płynących z tego rodzaju treningu na płaszczyźnie aktywności i partycypacji w życiu codziennym.
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In this paper we consider a 4-link model of a human for simulating a forward fall. The model implemented in Mathematica is constructed based on a planar mechanical system with a non-linear impact law modelling the wrist-ground contact. The segments of the human body are modelled as bodies connected by rotary elements which correspond to the human joints. Parameters and kinematic relations used in numerical analysis are obtained based on the 3D scanned model of the human body created in Inventor and experimental observation by the motion capture system. Validation of the model is conducted by means of comparing the simulation of the impact force with the experimental data obtained from the force platform. The obtained ground reaction forces can be useful for the finite element analysis of the numerical model of the human upper extremity.
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Background. Lipomas are benign neoplasms arising from fat tissue, with an incidence in the upper extremity of 1%-3,8%. There is scarce literature on the outcomes of the treatment of lipomas in this region. The objective of this study was to assess clinical manifestations and outcomes of surgery for upper extremity lipomas. Material and methods. The sample comprised 40 patients, including 26 women (65%) and 14 men (35%), at a mean age of 37 years, with lipomas located in the upper limbs. Treatment outcomes were assessed at a mean of 4.2 years after surgery in 27 patients from this group. Results. Most of the tumours (29 cases, 73%) were located in the forearm and arm, with 11 patients (27%) presenting with lipomas of the metacarpus and wrist. In 35 patients (87%), lesions were located superficially, within subcutaneous tissue, whereas in 5 (13%) they were located more deeply, in the metacarpus and in the forearm muscles. The follow-up assessment was conducted as telephone interviews in 27 patients. No recurrence was noted. Seven patients (26%) complained of mild tenderness of the postoperative scar. Conclusions. 1. Lipomas are moderately frequent benign lesions occurring in the upper limb. 2. Surgical treatment is effective and the recurrence rate is very low.
PL
Wstęp. Tłuszczaki są łagodnymi nowotworami powstającymi z tkanki tłuszczowej, o częstości występowania na kończynach górnych wynoszącej od 1% do 3,8%. W piśmiennictwie nie ma wielu artykułów na temat wyników leczenia tłuszczaków o tej lokalizacji. Celem pracy była ocena manifestacji klinicznej i wyników leczenia tłuszczaków w obrębie kończyny górnej. Materia i metoda. Materiał kliniczny stanowiła grupa 40 pacjentów, 26 kobiet (65%) i 14 mężczyzn (35%), w wieku śr. 37 lat, z tłuszczakami umiejscowionymi na kończynach górnych. Wyniki leczenia po okresie śr. 4,2 lat od operacji oceniono u 27 pacjentów z tej grupy. Wyniki. Większość guzów - 29 przypadków (73%) była zlokalizowana na przedramieniu i ramieniu, a u 11 pacjentów (27%) na śródręczu i nadgarstku. U 35 pacjentów (87%) guzy były umiejscowione powierzchownie w tkance podskórnej, a u 5 (13%) były położone głęboko wewnątrz śródręcza i w mięśniach przedramienia. Badanie kontrolne w formie wywiadu telefonicznego przeprowadzono u 27 pacjentów. Nie zanotowano żadnego nawrotu choroby. Siedmiu pacjentów (26%) skarżyło się na niewielkie dolegliwości w okolicy blizny pooperacyjnej. Wnioski. 1. Tłuszczaki są umiarkowanie częstymi guzami łagodnymi spotykanymi w obrębie kończyny górnej. 2. Leczenie operacyjne jest skuteczne, a nawroty bardzo rzadkie.
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The frequent use of veins in surgery, especially in the replacement of clogged arteries in the lower extremities, persuaded the authors to conduct research concerning the morphology of superficial veins in the human upper extremity. In a post-mortem study a group of 40 male subjects of 22–92 years of age was examined. The preparation of the region of the elbow fossa was performed in order to establish the architecture of superficial veins in the extremity. Many detailed anthropometrical measurements were also carried out, enabling a typological evaluation to be made of the deceased under study. Two characteristic pictures of venous anastomosis were tested, one with symmetrical tributaries to the vena basilica et cephalica and the second characterised by a rich set of tributaries to the vena basilica. The characteristics, calibre and structure of both these suggest a fruitful application of them in vessel surgery. The vena cephalica in particular, taken with efficient valves, may successfully play the role of vessel implant.
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This paper presents the results of a study into the effect of some factors determining the orientation of the upper extremity within the normal working space on the torque of the muscles of this extremity. The results of this study may be useful in the anthropotechnical design of controlling devices. The paper also includes data on the torque developed by the upper extremity within the operator's normal working space which are presented in the form of centile characteristics.
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W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczących wpływu wybranych czynników określających położenie kończyny górnej w normalnej przestrzeni pracy na wartość momentu skręcającego rozwijanego przez mięśnie tej kończyny. Wyniki badań mogą być wykorzystane w antropometrycznym projektowaniu urządzeń sterujących. Przedstawiono także, w formie charakterystyk centylowych, dane dotyczące momentów skręcających rozwijanych przez kończynę górną w normalnej przestrzeni pracy operatora.
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Variations involving the cervical portion of the vagus nerve are seemingly very rare. We report an adult male found to harbour a right cervical vagus nerve that crossed anterior to the right common carotid artery to terminate in the lateral aspect of the thyroid gland. A very small continuation of this nerve was found to continue distally into the thorax. Histologically, this part of the vagus nerve did not contain ganglion or other cell bodies. There were no heterologous inclusions (thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, salivary gland or branchial cleft remnants) present. Although grossly there was a connection into the thyroid gland, this was not observed histologically. No signs of trauma were found to the ipsilateral neck region. We hypothesise that this variation is due to entanglement between the thyroid gland and cervical vagus nerve during development. This rare variation might be considered by the clinician who operates in the cervical region or interprets imaging of the neck. To our knowledge, a vagus nerve with the above described morphology has not been described.
PL
Artykuł opisuje budowę i zasadę działania semi-egzoszkieletalnego robota przeznaczonego do rehabilitacji medycznej kończyny górnej, który powstał na Politechnice Łódzkiej. Robot analizuje sygnały elektromiograficzne generowane przez pacjenta w celu wykorzystania ich do sterowania i oceny jakości fizjoterapii. Posiada również możliwość rehabilitacji ruchowej z wykorzystaniem wirtualnej rzeczywistości oraz tryby sterowania podatnego. Dzięki tym zaawansowanym trybom sterowania pacjent wchodzi w interakcję z robotem, co pozytywnie wpływa na przebieg terapii. Na początku artykułu nakreślono obecny stan wiedzy na temat robotów rehabilitacyjnych w Polsce i na świecie. Następnie znajduje się opis poszczególnych podsystemów robota. Na końcu przedstawiono konkluzje, które stanowią wskazówki dla twórców podobnych robotów rehabilitacyjnych.
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The paper describes the design and operation of a semi-exoskeleton arm rehabilitation robot dedicated for upper limb rehabilitation. The robot was created at Lodz University of Technology. It analyzes electromyography signals generated by patient in order to use them in control and to assess physiotherapy process. The control system of the robot is also able to work in advanced control framework related to virtual reality and compliance control, thereby patient can interact with the robot, what has positive influence on the course of therapy. In the beginning of the article there is the description of current state of the art in Poland and in the world. Next there is the description of various robotic subsystems. In the end of the article there are conclusions, which are in facts guidelines for engineers, who are working under similar projects.
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Content available remote Planar arm movement trajectory formation: an optimization based simulation study
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Rehabilitation of post stroke patients with upper extremity motor deficits is typically focused on relearning of motor abilities and functionalities requiring interaction with physiotherapists and/or rehabilitation robots. In a point-to-point movement training, the trajectories are usually arbitrarily determined without considering the motor impairment of the individual. In this paper, we used an optimal control model based on arm dynamics enabling also incorporation of muscle functioning constraints (i.e. simulation of muscle tightness) to find the optimal trajectories for planar arm reaching movements. First, we tested ability of the minimum joint torque cost function to replicate the trajectories obtained in previously published experimental trials done by neurologically intact subjects, and second, we predicted the optimal trajectories when muscle constraints were modeled. The resulting optimal trajectories show considerable similarity as compared to the experimental data, while on the other hand, the muscle constraints play a major role in determination of the optimal trajectories for stroke rehabilitation.
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