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EN
All "dots and places" portrayed in this article, particularly crucial in spatial and topographic planning - "here" and "there", "home" and "second home", "Asia" and "Europe", "modern" and "ancient", "Nepal" and "EU" - are consistent with oikologic and cultural qualities of the project. As a result, Nepal's topoi rumination unravels a distinctive image of those places that become a palimpsest matter, archeologic reserve that hides and preserves tropes of life [of people, animals, plants and objects] that haunt given space in another historical 'layering". Always different, locally diverse system of "the past reserves" is thus a potential budding story. The above words could certainly qualify for a working (Geopoetic) definition of cultural tradition of the region. If that is the case - the essay would be a more specific explication of the definition.
EN
Aerosols play a crucial role in climate change by providing a radiation balance between the Earth and atmosphere. In the present study, aerosol sources and sinks have been identified over African region using the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 reanalysis data from 1985 to 2015. The study mainly focused on climatological and seasonal changes in aerosol distribution and concentrations over African continent and their impact on east African rainfall. Western Africa shows high concentrations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) of greater than 0.3 due to localized pressure changes and diverging winds from the Sahara desert. The highest amount of AOD ( ̴0.8) has been observed in winter season due to strong surface winds and high production of sea salt. When temperature is high in summer season ( ̴306 K), it has been observed that aerosol area distribution increases but their concentration decreases. The highest amount of rainfall ( ̴295 mm) was recorded in the winter season between 1997 and 1998. A strong inverse relationship was observed between aerosol and the east African rainfall. In 2015, the lowest amount of rainfall was observed in the summer season ̴100 mm due to the observed high presence of aerosols. On average, the correlation coefficient between aerosols and precipitation over east Africa has been found to be negative. The increase in rainfall is associated with an increase in relative humidity. However, during the east African monsoon season, the presence of some aerosols cause the development of convective clouds and hence more rainfall.
EN
The main aim of this article is to discuss ways of presenting source of magical power in world of Middle-earth, created by J.R.R. Tolkien. Author hopes to present the most important artifacts, important events and exceptional beings settled in the worlds of Tolkien, which will allow to describe the main source of magic in universe created by J.R.R. Tolkien.
EN
The presented text is an attempt to show Heidegger's conception of returning to the source as a jump - Ursprung. Heidegger presented this concept in his famous book by title Contributions to Philosophy. This book seems to be a breakthrough in his thinking, because it shows the way to being alone without the help of entity, it means, Heidegger in this book departs from the conception of fundamental ontology as shown in the work of Being and time, which meant discovering the truth of being by entity, specifically, through Dasein's analysis. Contributions to Philosophy shows a different path, namely by the enowning of being - Ereignis. Such position is referred as "return" - Kehre. The sense of return made by Heidegger is exacerbated by the question of the sense of being, the question that comes down to making a violent intrusion - jump into the source, which is being itself. The jump - Ursprung is fundamental importance here, because it is some kind of Dasein's command, but it also shows the proper meaning of the beginning - arche, principium as the power, the ground and the hidden source. Heidegger invites the reader to a journey to the philosophical source - he invites to the jump into the abyss of the mystery of being. In this way according to him philosophy shows his real and true face.
EN
The source and its relationship with oikology are key issues. The knowledge dispensed by oikology would be simple: it is an imperative of a return to the idea of home. The author deals with the mystical source, the fountain of youth, the source of life or the presence of wells near the house. These experiences are needed to rethink the present-day home and place it in the imperative of returning to the source.
7
Content available remote „Klęska starego komunisty”. Październik ’56 w relacji Jana Trusza
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EN
The aim of this article is to present selected methodological threads of the discussion on the status of historical sources which took place in Polish post‑war historiography. In the article, I present the concepts of the historical source formulated in 1957–1989, mainly by Gerard Labuda and Jerzy Topolski. Further in the text, I will present the discussion about Topolski’s concepts and characterize the peculiarities of contemporary history as regards historical sources. In the light of the presented classification of sources, I will reflect on the status of the documents created by the apparatus of repression of the Polish People’s Republic.
EN
The examples presented in this article show the importance of a recipe (and in a broader context, a cookery book) as a source allowing to learn about everyday life. Analyzing and interpreting them, historians can not only obtain data on basic food items in each historical period, their energy value and use, but also find out what the nutrition model in that period was. What is more, some casual remarks made by authors, may be significant for the research on changes in general manners and etiquette.
EN
As a result of the “Pereyaslav Council” in 1654, the Polish – Moscow war broke out. The war lasted until 1667, till signing the truce in Andrusowo. For both sides the document was not satisfying and as a result it was meant to last shortly. A political situation, wars of Poland and Moscow with various neighbors forced both sides to prolong the truce. In 1678, another treaty which prolonged it for another 13 years was signed in Moscow. In Poland the negotiations were considered as controversial and their result as unsatisfying. However, contemporary the treaty is little known. The text presented below is to remind of circumstances of those events and to make the unknown and unused in Polish historiography version of the document kept in archives of the Institute of History in Russian Academy of Sciences in Sankt Petersburg public.
EN
The unique oasis of Zousfana, on the western edge of the Grand Erg Occi-dental, Taghit is the pearl of the oases of Saoura, a palm grove of 180 ha over an 18 km length crossed by Oued Zouzfana. It regroups the different types of landscapes of an arid zone (erg, hamada, barga – a small hill, oued ...). Taghit is known for its hydraulic civilization, the oasis in its hostile environment has survived thanks to the exploitation of rare groundwater irrigation according to the traditional customs applied to the whole of society. The peasants spur out the water resources through foggaras and traditional wells. But the intervention of modern irrigation techniques in an anarchic way has disrupted the fragile mode of irrigation and the abandonment of the palm grove. The over-exploitation of groundwater by the use of boreholes and motor pumps leads to the drying up of water sources, mists and traditional wells. Today, only 45 000 palm trees are productive and less than 1500 fruit trees. There are 500 fellahs in the entire agricultural area of Taghit, the majority of them is fleeing work in the oasis because of the lack of income from it. When comparing the results of analyses from different campaigns (2015 and 2008), a spectacular increase in the salt concentrations in the groundwater of the different palm groves is noticed. According to our investigations, the main causes of this jump are: the overexploitation of the water tables by motor pumps, the abandonment of land inside the palm grove, the lack of maintenance of the gardens, the exploitation of domestic wastewater in the irrigation. According to this preliminary study, it is important for the State to make farmers aware of the role of their traditional irrigation systems in the continuity of the oasis and life in it.
EN
In purpose to examine the antioxidant activity of 15 natural honeys of different origin ABTS method was used, total phenol content and dry matter content of honey samples were determined. Honeys were collected from different locations of Slovakia, Poland and Serbia and were represented as monofl oral and multifl oral samples (10) which originated from Poland and Slovakia, forest samples (4) originated from Serbia and honeydew honey. Average values of antioxidant activity observed in samples of honeys ranged from 0.62 to 4.63 mmol/kg. The highest antioxidant activity was detected in buckwheat honey and the lowest was shown in acacia honey. By observing the impact of individual honey samples on antioxidant activity it was found that the sample had a highly statistically signifi cant effect. 10 homogeneous groups which varied in the antioxidant activity among each other were established by all 15 samples. Antioxidant activity of honeys could be a positive infl uence factor in terms of honey differentiation, especially in the case of the forest honeys collected from different places. Monofl oral and multifl oral honeys (10) established 5 homogenous groups, but in the case of several multifl oral honeys which originated from different places of Poland and Slovakia no statistically signifi cant differences were found.
EN
The history of PRL (Polish People's Republic) security authorities is a very interesting issue (contemporary) researchers. The present article refers to an unknown section of this research area, namely the state of health of SB (security service) and MO (citizens militia) officers. The analysis concerns the period between 1979 and 1980 and constitutes a beginning of high spectrum MSW (Ministry of the Interior) healthcare studies.
EN
This article is the first of two parts of a description of the motif of the seven words uttered by the crucified Christ in old Polish biblical and apocrypha narrations. The author presents the origin of the motif, characteristics of old Polish texts in which it occurred; the most important differences have been highlighted in the feature arrangement of the specific fragments of old Polish Passion of Jesus. The body of the article is represented by depiction of the sources of the seven words uttered by Christ on the cross, presentation of various ways of medieval scribes using the Holy Scriptures and an attempt to capture the motif severing itself from the original source. While the words uttered by Jesus on the cross come from the Gospels, neither of the four evangelists confirmed all of them. The chronology of the words is also arbitrary. In all old Polish apocrypha containing a description of Christ’s death on the cross, the motif of the seven words plays an important role and has been analysed with respect to the content and the vocabulary. The second part of the characteristics will be devoted to the linguistic development of the description of the motif in question.
EN
The aim of the present article is to examine an 18th-century manuscript completed in the Benedictine Abbey in Tuchów. The basic problem is related to a narrative technique, which resembles a medieval one. Some modifications of the narration are also noticeable, but the work is mostly similar to medieval chronicles.
EN
Environmental risks associated with Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust collected from Baotou, a medium-sized industrial city in a semi-arid area of northwest China, were assessed by using enrichment factor and the potential ecological index. Their spatial distributions and sources in the dust were analyzed on the basis of geostatistical methods and multivariate statistical analysis, respectively. The results indicate that street dust in Baotou has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. Co in the dust was significantly enriched. Cr and Pb were from moderate to significant enrichment. Cu and Zn were from minimal to moderate enrichment, whereas Mn, Ni and V in the dust were from deficient to minimal enrichment. The ecological risk levels of Co and Pb in the dust were moderate to considerable and low to moderate, respectively, whereas those of other heavy metals studied in the dust presented low ecological risk. Different distribution patterns were found among the analyzed heavy metals. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. Cr, Mn, Ni and V originated from nature and industrial activities. Cu, Pb and Zn derived mainly from traffic sources, and Co was mainly from construction sources.
PL
Przedstawiono rodzaje odnawialnych źródeł energii. Podano przyczyny ograniczeń w rozwoju odnawialnych źródeł energii. Obecnie do przyczyn tych należą: lekceważenie nadmiaru emisji CO2 w krajach rozwijających się gospodarczo, globalny kryzys finansowy oraz wpływ rozwoju produkcji biopaliw na ceny żywności.
EN
The kinds of renewable sources of energy are presented. The reasons of limitations in the development of renewable sources of energy are given. Currently, the causes of these include: disregard for the excess of CO2 in economically developing countries, the global financial crisis and the impact of the development of biofuel production on food prices.
EN
By marginal entries we mean such entries which aren’t connected directly with a studying subject. At the same time, these records give some answers to the questions lying in an absolutely different area of absolutely different problems. This study reveals the importance of marginal records of the manuscripts of the National Library of Russia in St. Petersburg. Scribes Gerasim Novgorodets, Dionysius Kruk and Trifon Grechanin might not be the most significant writers of Old Russian culture, however detection of several facts of their biographies can help to determine the facts and biographies of statesmen of the medieval Russia’s history. This article shows how the facts about a private life of the Old Russian monks and scribes collected as a result of “microresearch” of completely different documents could significantly influence dates of historical events as well as the biographies of persons who played an important role in the process of construction of the Russian state.
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