In the majority of recent textbooks of obstetrics, a routine follow-up examination at the end of the postpartum period is recommended. To date, no studies have been done in the Czech Republic addressing use of contraception and follow-up care in the postpartum period. Questionnaires were sent to 672 participants who gave birth in the year 2008, inquiring about follow-up examinations in the postpartum period and use of contraception. In total, 458 (68.2%) questionnaires were returned. 430 women (93.9%) underwent routine examinations at 6 weeks into the postpartum period. At the time of examination, 36 women were asked about their particular health problems (8.4%). In 130 instances, the question most often addressed by the outpatient gynecologist concerned use of contraception (30.2%). However, only 34 physicians expressed concern about changes in sexual life or other sexually related problems. 426 women (93.0%) were sexually active and 310 women (72.8%) did not use any contraception with the exception of breastfeeding. The current practice of outpatient gynecological visits at 6 weeks postpartum and advice on contraception both seem inadequate.