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Content available remote The major clinical outcomes of diabetic foot infections: One center experience
Diabetes mellitus with its limb and life-threatening complications such as diabetic foot infection and amputation are increasing at epidemic rates all over the world. The objective of this study was to determine the rate of lower extremity amputation, the risk factors and the bacteriologic profile for diabetic foot lesions. The records of all 84 patients with diabetic foot infections of a large general hospital over a 4-year period were retrospectively included. The most commonly isolated pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (39%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14%), Proteus mirabilis (14%), Escherichia coli (14%), Group B streptococci (12%), and Klebsiella pneumonia (8%). The variables, independently associated with higher foot infections, were inadequate diabetic regulation (93%), peripheral neuropathy (88.1%), peripheral vascular disease (73.8%), smoking (56%), past history of ulcer (28.5%), penetrating injury (20.3%), inadequate foot wear (15%) and Charcot osteoartropathy (10.7%). The general amputation rate was 38.1%. Diabetic foot ulcers and its complication rates including infection, gangrene and lower extremity amputation in Turkey are still high. Preventive care of the foot in patients with diabetes mellitus is extremly important. Therefore early diagnosing of risk factors for diabetic foot infections in the primary care setting and their adequate therapy under multidisciplinary approach should not be neglected.
Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and smoking are known to be the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because the elderly population has been increasing globally, CVD may become a more important public health problem in the future. This report examines the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly in Ankara, Turkey. This was a cross-sectional survey and included a total of 2720 individuals living in the Ankara district. Trained research staff administered a standard questionnaire in the participants’ homes and worksites. The questionnaire collected information on clinical and demographic characteristics and a self-reported medical history, including past history of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, coronary artery by-pass graft operation, and cerebrovascular accident. The mean age of the study participants was 69.5 ± 7.2 years. The study identified 1298 women (78.1%) and 753 men (71.2%) with hypertension, and the overall prevalence of hypertension was 75.4%. A total of 739 (27.2%) people had diabetes mellitus, and, of these people, 603 (81.6%) were hypertensive. A total of 1361 people had hyperlipidemia, and 1103 of these patients were also hypertensive. The overall prevalence of obesity was 27.2%. A total of 553 (20.3%) people were smokers. Our findings indicate that cardiovascular risk factors are very common in the elderly. To maximize risk reduction, physicians must take aggressive measures to decrease cardiovascular risk factors.
Content available remote Cardiac valve calcifications and predictive parameters in hemodialysis patients
Cardiac valvular calcification is frequent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The presence of valvular calcification can help identify HD patients with a higher risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of valvular calcification (VC) in our maintenance hemodialysis (HD) population and to examine some possible etiologic factors for its occurrence. We studied forty-four patients on hemodialysis (23 women and 21 men; mean age 57 ± 18 year; mean HD duration 34 ± 28 months). Valvular calcification (VC) was observed in 21 patients (48%). Of these patients, 6 patients (13%) had mitral valvular calcification, 9 patients (20%) had aortic valvular calcification, and 6 patients (13%) had calcification of both valves. The patients with VC were older than patients without VC (66±14 vs. 50±18). The patients with aortic calcification had longer HD duration than others (48±29 vs. 27±24 months). Patients with VC had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than patients without VC. The patients with mitral calcification had higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (14 ± 13 vs. 7 ± 7). No significant differences were found with respect to calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase and mean Ca × P product. Our study confirmed that there is an increased prevalence of VC in HD patients. Age is a risk factor for cardiac VC in HD patients. Longer HD duration was associated with aortic valve calcification. In addition, elevated level of CRP is associated with mitral valve calcification in HD patients.
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