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The detection of micrometastases in patients with operable non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) could have a considerable influence on the choice of a proper treatment.The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of microscopic examination and immunohistochemistry for the detection of micrometastases or single malignant cells in the bone marrow of patients undergoing surgery for NSCLC, as their late survival and recurrence-free time is dependent on immunohistochemical markers of cancer metastases in the bone marrow.Material and methods. Thirty-five patients were included in the study. Their age range was from 47 to 78 years old. Bone marrow was obtained from a rib during surgery for lung cancer. Both a resected tumour and bone marrow sample were tested for the presence of cytokeratins AE1/AE3, CAM 5.2, CK-7, and CK-18 and other indicators such as CD31 and CD34. The mean time of observation was 871.6 days.Results. Microscopic examination detected no malignant cells or micrometastases in the bone marrow in the analyzed group. Cytokeratin CAM 5.2 was detected in 33 cases (94.23%) in a lung tumour and in 21 cases (60%) in the bone marrow. Statistical analysis (chi2 NW), showed a statistically significant relationship between the presence of CAM 5.2 expression in a tumour and in the bone marrow. In all analysed cases, the expression of cytokeratin AE1/AE2 was found in a tumour, but was not detected in any bone marrow sample. Cytokeratin CK-7 and CK-18 were present in a tumour in 20 (57.14%) and 23 (65.71%) patients, respectively. In the bone marrow, the expression of cytokeratin CK-7 was found in one case (2.86%), and CK-18 was not found in any patients. Thirteen (37.14%) patients died during follow-up. Local recurrence was diagnosed in three patients (8.57%) and distant metastases in 15 patients (42.86%). Mean recurrence-free time was 687.7 days.Conclusions. On the basis of immunohistological tests, it was shown that a significant correlation existed between the presence of cytokeratin CAM 5.2 expression in a tumour and in the bone marrow. Its presence in the bone marrow was a good predictive factor for recurrence-free time. Mortality and the frequency of locoregional recurrence and distant metastases depend on pathological lung cancer staging.
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells also known as mesenchymal stem cells according to the signal from the damaged tissue have the ability to differentiate into several types of specialized cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as bone, cartilage, tendon, skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. This ability of MSC is used in regenerative medicine. For the clinical and experimental purposes in order to increase the amount of MSC their ability to proliferate in vitro is used. The best-known source of mesenchymal stem cells is the adipose tissue and bone marrow which is the most common source material used for primary culture. This paper presents the next steps of culturing mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.
Overexpression of SGTP and/or MT may contribute to various carcinogenic processes and to resistance to anticancer treatment. The importance of these proteins, although clearly established in solid tumours, has not been fully understood in haematopoietic neoplasm. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of MT and SGTP in the bone marrow of patients with MPD. Twenty paraffin-embedded bone marrow core biopsy specimens from newly diagnosed patients with MPD were evaluated — osteomyelofibrosis (OMF), n = 9 and chronic myelocytic leukaemia (CML), n = 11. We demonstrate increased SGTP and MT expression in the bone marrow of MPD patients. In our study levels of MT in OMF patients were higher than in CML. This suggests that MT expression may correlate with bone marrow fibrosis. These data, although based on a relatively small number of patients, raise the possibility that SGTP and MT may play a role in the pathogenesis of MPD. The clinical significance of this phenomenon needs further investigation.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on benzene hematotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on rats exposed for 2, 4 and 8 weeks to benzene vapour at a conentration of 1.5 or 4.5 mmol/m³ of air (5 days per week, 6 hours per day) alone or together with ASA at the doses of 5, 150 or 300 mg/kg body weight (per os). Results: Benzene at a concentration of 4.5 mmol/m³ caused a slight lymphopenia, granulocytosis and reticulocytosis in blood. In bone marrow traits of megaloblastic renewal, presence of undifferentiated cells and giant forms of granulocytes as well as an increase in myeloperoxidase and decrease in chloroacetate esterase activity and lipids content were noted. ASA (150 and 300 mg/kg b.w.) influenced some of hematological parameters, altered by benzene intoxication. ASA limited the solvent-induced alteration in blood reticulocyte count and in the case of bone marrow in the erythroblasts count. Traits of megaloblastic renewal in bone marrow were less pronounced. Besides, higher activity of myeloperoxidase and the decrease in the level of lipids in granulocytes were noted. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ASA limited the benzene-induced hematotoxicity.
Objective: There is increasing evidence that the transplanted bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) significantly promote functional recovery after central nervous system damage in the animal models of various kinds of CNS disorders, including cerebral infarct. However, there are several shortages of information when considering clinical application of BMSC transplantation for patients with neurological disorders. In this meeting, therefore, we discuss what we should clarify to establish cell transplantation therapy in clinical situation and describe our recent works for this purpose. Methods and Results: The BMSC have multiple abilities to differentiate into the neural cells and to promote neuronal survival and axon elongation, contributing to rebuild the neural circuits in the injured CNS. Using optical imaging and MRI techniques, the transplanted BMSC can non-invasively be tracked in the living animals for at least 8 weeks after transplantation. Clinical MR apparatus can visualize the tagged BMSC in the brain. FDG PET is quite valuable to monitor the recovery of brain metabolism after transplantation. The BMSC can be expanded using the animal protein-free culture medium within a clinically relevant period. G-CSF is useful to enhance their proliferation when the BMSC are obtained from the aged patients. There are optimal dose and timing of BMSC transplantation to yield significant therapeutic benefits. Conclusion: It is urgent issues to develop clinical imaging technique to track the transplanted cells in the CNS and evaluate the therapeutic significance of BMSC transplantation to establish it as a definite therapeutic strategy in clinical situation in very near future.
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