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EN
Spoken and written language are two modes of language. When learners aim at higher skill levels, the expected outcome of successful second language learning is usually to become a fluent speaker and writer who can produce accurate and complex language in the target language. There is an axiomatic difference between speech and writing, but together they form the essential parts of learners’ L2 skills. The two modes have their own characteristics, and there are differences between native and nonnative language use. For instance, hesitations and pauses are not visible in the end result of the writing process, but they are characteristic of nonnative spoken language use. The present study is based on the analysis of L2 English spoken and written productions of 18 L1 Finnish learners with focus on syntactic complexity. As earlier spoken language segmentation units mostly come from fluency studies, we conducted an experiment with a new unit, the U-unit, and examined how using this unit as the basis of spoken language segmentation affects the results. According to the analysis, written language was more complex than spoken language. However, the difference in the level of complexity was greatest when the traditional units, T-units and AS-units, were used in segmenting the data. Using the U-unit revealed that spoken language may, in fact, be closer to written language in its syntactic complexity than earlier studies had suggested. Therefore, further research is needed to discover whether the differences in spoken and written learner language are primarily due to the nature of these modes or, rather, to the units and measures used in the analysis.
EN
This article presents didactic measures which can help overcome the common fear of speaking. First, the communication competence required today is briefly discussed, with the greatest emphasis being placed on the role of “Mundlichkeit” (which is the oral nature of communication). It is shown what complex processes take place while speaking and what intensive training they require. The second chapter deals with the fear of speaking, its causes, levels and negative function. The problem of correcting errors and readiness to speak are also discussed. The third chapter discusses the ability to support speaking, including decentralized learning formats, exercises and speaking facilitation tasks as well as interesting speaking tasks. Finally, the specificity of youth courses and examples from these courses are presented.
EN
Spoken and written language are two modes of language. When learners aim at higher skill levels, the expected outcome of successful second language learning is usually to become a fluent speaker and writer who can produce accurate and complex language in the target language. There is an axiomatic difference between speech and writing, but together they form the essential parts of learners’ L2 skills. The two modes have their own characteristics, and there are differences between native and nonnative language use. For instance, hesitations and pauses are not visible in the end result of the writing process, but they are characteristic of nonnative spoken language use. The present study is based on the analysis of L2 English spoken and written productions of 18 L1 Finnish learners with focus on syntactic complexity. As earlier spoken language segmentation units mostly come from fluency studies, we conducted an experiment with a new unit, the U-unit, and examined how using this unit as the basis of spoken language segmentation affects the results. According to the analysis, written language was more complex than spoken language. However, the difference in the level of complexity was greatest when the traditional units, T-units and AS-units, were used in segmenting the data. Using the U-unit revealed that spoken language may, in fact, be closer to written language in its syntactic complexity than earlier studies had suggested. Therefore, further research is needed to discover whether the differences in spoken and written learner language are primarily due to the nature of these modes or, rather, to the units and measures used in the analysis.
EN
The article deals with the prothetic v in a manuscript book of testimonies of people interrogated under torture under Czech Early Modern criminal law. The records of testimonies, being legal documents, had to be as faithful as possible and are thus fairly close to the then spoken Czech, even to a degree not found anywhere else in the period production, although the influence of scribes must be also carefully considered. The German scribe, for example, who did not have a firm grasp of Czech and its orthography, wrote down the prothesis in almost all possible instances, hence testifying to its systemic character in the local dialect. The books of testimonies are free from several limitations of typographical usage of Early Modern prints and also represent highly interesting material from the sociolinguistic point of view. The Velka Biteš juridical district included the Naměšť region where the future language model of prestigious Czech – the Kralice Bible – would appear in the period examined. The article provides a detailed analysis of the usage of prothesis considering several parameters such as the role of the individual scribes and the chronology, a comparison of proper nouns with the remaining vocabulary, a comparison of classes within the proper nouns, parts of speech and word formation analysis, the hiatus position, speeches of males and females recorded by a single scribe and a comparison with selected period prints and manuscripts.
EN
The paper deals with establishing the need to prioritize category of politeness in foreign language teaching and particularly concentrates on the tasks and challenges it presents to philology. Considerations on philological language competence constitute background for claiming postulates referring to didactics and integration of language politeness in philological education. These postulates implying concepts of intercultural communication and language awareness should contribute to further discussions on nature of foreign language teaching at philological studies.
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The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between television language and spoken Italian, applying the problem of the subjunctive as a reference point, frequently replaced by the indicative in colloquial contexts. Despite the fact that television language is now considered a reflection of Italian varieties and spoken-spoken language, there is still a heterogeneous language of the type transmitted. As such, it constitutes a set of various styles and registers, characterized by different linguistic phenomena from those of unattended speech. The effect of the study is to show that although in the field of Italian diametric varieties television language has more in common with spoken than written Italian, the dynamics of the processes that take place in both are still not the same.
EN
Understanding and correctly using modal particles is a particular challenge for German learners due to the complexity and contextual dependence of the particles. Yet, they take on important interactional and social functions and occur with great frequency in spoken language. They can express a common knowledge base and socially shared knowledge of conversation partners, as well as signal discrepancy in expectations. Although a conscious perception and detailed knowledge of how they work are not absolutely necessary in order to roughly understand utterances, such a lack of understanding can impair German learners’ interpersonal communication with native German speakers. Therefore, pedagogical guidance is required that provides practical, interactive language knowledge for the use of the modal particles to enable learners to be effective in social contacts and understanding. The following article deals with a teaching unit for the lower intermediate level, in which the modal particle ja is made aware and conveyed to German learners through approaches from conversation analysis. The integration of language data from the Datenbank für Gesprochenes Deutsch enables authentic language situations when introducing and using the modal particle. Learners analyze the particle in real contexts and derive usage rules. With the help of a five-phase teaching model, they derive the functionality of the modal particle and internalize these patterns through structured language practice that strengthen and expand their communicative, sociolinguistic, and intercultural competence.
EN
This article is devoted to the main issues of elucidating the specifics colloąuial style in the modem theory of the literary language, presented in Slavic linguistics. The positions are determined by the scholars with regard to meanine o f the terms and colloąuial spoken language in the functional theory o f language. The problem of the “colloąuial style of literary language” is in the piane of its differentiation as specific constructs in the communicative style of the сотріех “spoken language”; distinguishing areas of domestic everyday informal communication and areas of production and service, and public activi:y. It is noted that the study of colloąuial style is necessary to consider psychological and linguistic communication. 
EN
The aim of the article is to analyze the language, form and style which are used by three popular contemporary preachers: Father Adam Szustak, the Rev. Piotr Pawlukiewicz and Archbishop Grzegorz Ryś, in their homilies. The study method applied by the authors in the present work relies on the linguistic-stylistic analysis of three selected homilies (one delivered by each of the three preachers). The analysis of the form of these sermons shows that they possess numerous features of a dialogue, which complies with the thesis that the paradigm of the homily is not a rhetorical speech, but a discussion, that is a dialogue. It is a virtual dialogue consisting in that deliverers of homilies formulate various problems on behalf of their listeners, ask questions about issues which raise commonly recognized doubts. Pondering over the language which predominates in the homilies under analysis reveals that it is a primary spoken language: the speakers deliver their sermons from memory, they do not resort to using notes, do not read particular fragments. A very important role regarding their homilies is played by non-verbal codes that co-create the communication act (gesticulating, mimics, proxemics) as well as paralinguistic components. The spoken variety of language is also closely connected with the communication context. Selection of the dialogue form and the spoken form of language is connected with the dominance of the colloquial style (in its neutral type) over the official one. This is evident in the homilies of all the three preachers, in both flexion and syntax or lexis. The above-mentioned elements: the form of a dialogue, spoken language and colloquial style, cause the preachers’ messages to be spontaneous and direct. These features are met with a good reception on the part of the receivers and can contribute to the popularity of Father Adam Szustak, the Rev. Piotr Pawlukiewicz and Archbishop Grzegorz Ryś.
EN
The article discusses the problems associated with segmented into separate sentences the stream of spoken language. There are both: theoretical problems (what is utterance?, what are its boundaries?, what are the theoretical proposals for the segmentation of utterances?), and practical problems (where is the real border between the two utterances in spoken language?, what criteria of segmentation stream of spoken language can be used?). The language material – which is the basis for the research presented in this article – comes from twenty task-oriented dialogue sessions with the participation of forty speakers performing a specific task. As a result of the analysis, based on available positions and theoretical reflection I managed to develop a tool for syntactical segmentation of the stream of spoken language. This tool can be presented in the form of a new (innovative) concept of definition of the utterance.
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Content available Implanty ślimakowe – etyka a wybór
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EN
Tomaszewski Piotr, Implanty ślimakowe – etyka a wybór [Cochlear implants – ethics and choices]. „Kultura – Społeczeństwo – Edukacja” nr 2(14) 2018, Poznań 2018, pp. 155–181, Adam Mickiewicz University Press. ISSN 2300-0422. DOI 10.14746/kse.2018.14.13. This study discusses the ethical issue of the development of hearing technology in the form of cochlear implants that are used by an ever-growing number of deaf and hard of hearing people. The development of this kind of technology has progressed so quickly all over the world, including Poland, that the deafness paradigms have drastically changed. This may affect, to a greater or lesser degree, not only the implementation of early support programmes, but also the image of the Deaf communities using their respective sign languages on a daily basis. It is therefore necessary to create an eclectic model of education for deaf and hard of hearing people which would allow for the ethical option to integrate the conflicting approaches on the proper procedure for deciding on the language (spoken or signed) and the culture (the hearing or the Deaf one) for the development of deaf and hard of hearing students with cochlear implants or hearing aids.
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Content available Mowa i pismo – dwie komplementarne formy języka
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EN
One gets the impression that the written form of the language implementation is preferably used as reference of linguistic analysis. In contrast, the article – not least on the basis of Jacques Derrida’s De la grammatologie – supports the thesis that all realizations of both, the spoken and the written language, are complementary. Consequently, they should be treated equally in the analysis. Also the legitimacy of the hitherto dominant print-based definitions of grammatical units has been criticized.
EN
The term Rhetorische Kommunikation (engl. rhetorical communication, vgl. McCroskey 1968 „An Introduction to Rhetorical Communication“) was introduced into German–language scholarship by Brigitte Frank-Bohringer in her 1963 book of the same title and was subsequently firmly established by Helmut Geißner. It is currently used in a variety of contexts when the rhetorical dimensions of language are the focus of interest. It appears both in rhetoric manuals as well as in academic texts on the topic, including those with an empirical perspective. This contribution aims to illuminate the epistemological background to this terminology by focusing on a number of linguistically relevant communication approaches. Underlying this discussion is the differentiated use of the concept as outlined here, as well as a holistic view of spoken language, grounded in a theory of action. Finally, the practical value of the term Rhetorische Kommunikation, will be emphasized, underlining the fact that its content serves as a provable basis for the systematic and goal–oriented use of rhetoric as a theme in the teaching of German as a foreign language. The following discussion proceeds from the concept of Rhetorische Kommunikation.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano porównanie współczesnych telewizyjnych transmisji sportowych z transmisjami z lat siedemdziesiątych i osiemdziesiątych XX wieku. Ponad trzydzieści lat to dla telewizji okres dużych zmian zarówno technologicznych, jak i kulturowych. To także czas zmian w zakresie metodologii, która dawniej koncentrowała się przede wszystkim na strukturalizmie. W artykule wykorzystano wyniki badań Jana Ożdżyńskiego i Wacława Cockiewicza, w odniesieniu do których scharakteryzowano współczesne transmisje. W aspekcie językowym widać przede wszystkim duże zmiany w zakresie liczby wypowiadanych słów, a także struktury składniowej.
EN
The paper includes a linguistic specification of the television genre, which has rarely been studied. Monographs regarding live sports coverage were written in the 1970s and 80s, i.e. over thirty years ago. For television, that period was a time of change, both technological and cultural, however, considering different methodologies, which in the case of the studies mentioned was more structuralism-focussed. In terms of language can be seen especially large changes in terms of the number of words and syntatic structure.
EN
In this paper, I wish to present the complexity of Jewish-Polish relations from the 19th century until the interwar period, with emphasis on sociolinguistic issues. I will illustrate the circumstances of the contact between the Polish and Hebrew languages. Poles and Jews, who lived side by side, developed successful relationships, but mainly in the criminal underworld. That was reflected in a sociolect – a dialect of criminals that constituted a mixture of Polish, Yiddish, Russian, and several other languages, including quite a few Hebrew words, which with time adopted new meanings. Moreover, I will provide some examples of Hebrew words used in Polish criminal jargon, as well as those which have been coined in every-day Polish. Then I will refer to some Hebrew words that are not connected with a world of crime and are still in use in spoken Polish.
PL
Celem artykułu jest przedstawienie niektórych problemów związanych z opisem mówionych odmian języka czeskiego i języka polskiego. W zakresie języka czeskiego uwaga autorki koncentruje się na specyficznej odmianie mówionej (jest to tzw. „obecná čeština”), która w systemie odmian języka stanowi zjawisko nietypowe ze względu na obecność substratu gwarowego, nie jest zaś dialektem jako środek komunikacji powszechny w Czechach także wśród wykształconych warstw społeczeństwa. „Obecná čeština” ujawnia swój specyficzny charakter także w niemożności znalezienia dla niej analogii pośród mówionych odmian języka polskiego.
EN
This paper presents some difficulties with a description of the varieties of the contemporary Czech and Polish spoken language. It concerns especially the situation of the spoken Czech language, because the Czech colloquial speech (so called “obecná čeština”) has no analogy in other Slavonic languages (like the Polish language), by reason of its dialectal origin. There are also various appearances in the contemporary Czech language, they we could name “obecná čeština”: the very spoken language, the Middle-Czech dialect, and also various literary creations made by using this variety of spoken Czech language.
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Content available remote ADVERBIAL MARKERS OF MODALITY IN NORWEGIAN L1 AND L2 CONVERSATIONS
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EN
The aim of this paper is to investigate how second language speakers of Norwegian (henceforth Norwegian L2 speakers) differ in their use of modality expressions from native speakers (L1 speakers). As modality is a very broad subject, the main focus of the study is limited to one-word modal adverbs, such as kanskje ‘maybe’, and modal particles such as jo. The study compares the frequency of using different types of modal adverbials by L1 and L2 speakers, and their syntactic position. The implications of the study are two-fold. First of all, it is to contribute to the studies of the field of modality in Norwegian. The second implication is didactic, as describing the use of modal adverbials in Norwegian conversation can help devise right teaching materials to allow second language users achieve a more native-like competence in this respect.
EN
The word form to (that.SG.N) traditionally tops frequency tables in corpora of spoken Czech: as a universal (gender- and number-neutral) exophoric (deictic) and endophoric (co-referential) device, it is crucial for spontaneous, unplanned discourse which requires reinforcing references to the context and co-text. Our estimate based on the ORAL series corpora is that about 70% of the instances of to in informal spoken language preserve strong referential semantics (i.e. the endo/exophoric function is preserved). In the remaining cases these functions are attenuated to different degrees: about 20% are part of what a phraseologically-oriented account would consider as indivisible chunks (often multi-word units expanding on the stub to + je.be.3SG), whereas the remaining 10% are purely pragmatic (chiefly serving as a turn-taking/keeping device). As the data show, to can even be prefixed, acting as a surrogate verb, and it is often reduplicated; both strategies indicate an attempt not to yield one’s turn while searching for words. A comparison of their relative frequencies in spoken and written corpora reveals these constructions as characteristic of spoken language.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy kompetencji składniowej oraz jej niedostatków w polszczyźnie mówionej cudzoziemców. Autorka przedstawia i omawia pod względem poprawności składniowej spontaniczne wypowiedzi studentów z Angoli, zebrane podczas obserwacji lekcji języka polskiego jako obcego w Studium Języka Polskiego dla Cudzoziemców UŁ. Zestawienie wypowiedzi poprawnych z błędnymi pozwoliło zaobserwować, które zagadnienia składniowe nie sprawiały cudzoziemcom trudności, a które były dla nich miejscem trudnym w polskiej składni.
EN
The article discusses syntactic competence and its shortcomings in Polish spoken by the foreigners. The author presents spontaneous utterances of the students from Angola, and analyses these utterances from the point of syntactic correctness. The utterances have been collected during observations of Polish language classes at the School of Polish for Foreign Students at the University of Lodz. The comparison of correct utterances with incorrect ones shows which syntax issues were not problematic for the foreigners, and which aspects of Polish syntax caused some difficulty.
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Content available Kierunki przemian w języku uczniów
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PL
Artykuł przedstawia najważniejsze zjawiska we współczesnej polszczyźnie oraz ich znaczenie dla rozwoju języka dzieci. Omawia także rolę szkoły i mediów w kształtowaniu języka mówionego i pisanego młodego pokolenia. Wskazuje negatywny wpływ mediów oraz zadania szkoły w edukacji językowej uczniów.
EN
The article presents the most important phenomena in contemporary polish language and their importance for the development of children's language. It also discusses the role of schools and the media in shaping the spoken and written language of the younger generation. It indicates the negative influence of the media and the school assignment in language education pupils.
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