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EN
The subject of analysis in this article are cosmonyms derived both from the names of mythological gods and heroes (or appellatives relating to them) and from zoonyms (or appellatives relating to animals). I take into consideration contemporary names of all astronomical objects (planets, planetoids, moons, stars, constellations, clusters and nebulae). Attracting attention in cosmonymy is the particular mechanism of naming stellar constellations, where the one doing the naming creates the object of nomination to a great degree. Cosmonyms that have developed as a result of transonymization and onymization are older names, since at present names made of letters and numbers predominate. In all the names discussed, metaphor played a key role.
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Content available remote The history of Polish basic astronomical vocabulary on the Slavic background
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EN
The article presents the history of Polish basic astronomical vocabulary on the Slavic background. There are twelve selected notions described: sky, sun, moon, new moon, full moon, quarter moon, star, planet, eclipse, horizon, comet and meteor. The majority of Polish contemporary basic astronomical vocabulary is already attested to in Old Polish (like 'niebo', 'slonce', 'ksiezyc', 'now', 'gwiazda', 'planeta', 'zacmienie'). The words 'pelnia', 'kwadra', 'horyzont' and 'kometa' appeared firstly in the 16th cent. The lexeme 'meteor' in the current astronomical meaning is attested to in the 19th cent. We deal with the numerous synonyms of contemporary astronomical terms in the history of Polish language. Some of them, like 'firmament', 'sklepienie niebieskie' and 'widnokrag', are still used, others disappeared irretrievably, for example 'obezrok', 'ziemiokres' and 'poziom' (all mean 'horizon'), some are preserved only in dialects, like 'miotla' (comet) and 'miesiac' (moon). It is worth noticing, that some of them - attested to already in Old Polish are for the first time named astronomical notions, for example 'miotla' and 'obezrok'. It is known that the group of early attested native words stand out distinctly in the Slavic languages because the names of respective notions in this group correspond with each other very closely (sky, sun, star, eclipse). The contemporary Polish name of moon (ksiezyc) is an old neosemantism. On the contrary, the names of moon in other Slavic languages are inherited words (however, they are derived from two different bases). The names of planet, comet, horizon and meteor are mainly loanwords (internationalisms) in the Slavic languages today.
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