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EN
There is little research in the field of bereavement that takes into consideration the financial component. Previous publications have indicated that bad financial situation may impede the process of mourning. This paper examines the research conducted by A.Moore in Togo on the influence of poverty on parents dealing with bereavement and puts is in a wider context of bereavement theory.
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Purpose: This study aims to assess the direction of changes in the extent of extreme, relative, and statutory poverty in 2008–2017 in Poland, along with the spatial differentiation of poverty in individual voivodships. Methodology: The study of poverty differentiation based on data from Household Budgets Survey. Obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis, using elements of multidimensional analysis. Results: The research revealed that there are significant differences in the level of poverty in individual voivodships, with lower values observed in Western Poland. A significant drop in the level of poverty, especially extreme poverty, was recorded in 2008–2017. Furthermore, fluctuations in the extent of poverty are strongly impacted by state policy. Implications: Research results may be useful to policy-makers at the local government level not only in Poland but also in other countries, mainly from the perspective of the European Union’s Europe 2020 strategy. Originality/Value: The article undertakes the topic of poverty, which constitutes an important and current socioeconomic concern. Despite progressive economic development, there still exist disadvantaged groups of entities and households.
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Many governments, charitable organizations and NGOs are dedicated to helping the world’s poor but much of their effort is wasted. In the opinion of Banerjee and Duflo this effort is based on assumptions that are untested generalizations at best, and harmful misperceptions at worst. Because of this, they propose a new way to fight global poverty. The paper presents this way. It is based on randomized trials to reveal the multi-faceted and complex economic lives of the poor. Limitations of the new perspective are shown.
EN
The permanently positive economic growth in Poland over the last twenty years has resulted in a significant improvement in the economic situation of households. The distribution of this increase in wealth was not, however, homogenous, and the pattern of income growth proved to be a crucial factor determining the situation of the poor. The aim of the paper is to investigate to what extent the characteristics of the households influence the income growth pattern. Three main groups of households will be considered: the selfemployed and blue- and white-collar workers. The analysis is based on the relative concept of changes in income distribution. Besides the commonly known income growth curves, diagrams related to the Zenga inequality index will be applied.
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Content available Mikrokredyty: skuteczna pomoc czy złudna idea?
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Microcredit has been regarded as one of the most powerful tools to address global poverty. More and more financial means is given to the microcredit movement by international institutions, wealthy philanthropists and ordinary people. Yet, strong criticism of this movement appears in which its assumptions are deflated and its effectiveness is challenged. The aim of the article is to reconstruct the most important theoretical and empirical strands in discussion on microcredit as a means to defeat poverty. In this discussion many arguments from different disciplines are presented and their justness depends on specific economic, cultural and religious conditions. Multitude and variety of these arguments seems to enforce the thesis that the question of microcredit’s effectiveness cannot be universally adjudicated because effectiveness differs according to conditions.
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The sense of threat resulting from the potential overpopulation of our globe is not a new phenomenon. As early as in ancient times, philosophers raised concerns over the excessive number of people that could disturb the stability of the state. Looking at the current demographic situation in the world, the author of the paper focuses on potential consequences of human overpopulation as well as various strategies of preventing the negative consequences of this phenomenon. The conducted analyses show that the reduction of poverty is a morally uncontroversial method of overcoming difficulties related to the growing number of inhabitants of our planet.
EN
The problem of monetary aspect of welfare in employees’ household was undertaken in this paper. In order to identify the households in danger of poverty, the binary logit models approach was applied. It was found that the estimation of models without the interaction terms results in misspecification error. Due to this, the interaction terms, between the socio-economic factors of households were included in the model. The obtained results can have significant importance in the aspect of social policy in Poland.
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Content available remote CHILD CARE BENEFIT 500+ AS COMPONENT OF LOCAL KNOWLEDGE: ATTEMPT TO GET INSIGHT
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The paper is about child allowance (500+), a new family benefit introduced in Poland in 2016. In the public sphere there is a lot of discussions connected with this new benefit, but most of them present the specialist’s points of view. The main goal of this paper is different, it present the elements of ”local knowledge”, the local points of view: people who benefit from the social system because of their difficult financial situation and people who work in the local public institutions and observe the impact of the new child allowance on the poor people everyday life. In the paper there are presented the qualitative research results. Conclusions are ambiguous and complicated – in the respondent’s opinions we can observe both the advantages and the disadvantages of the new child allowance (500+).
EN
In 2015 the Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel was won by Angus Deaton. He was awarded for his analysis of consumption, poverty, and welfare. In this paper we have presented the model of consumption co-authored by Deaton (AID model) in the context of postulated rationality of consumers. Also, Deaton’s research over long-run consumption, global poverty and connected phenomena was shortly discussed. Deaton’s merits in moving the spotlight from aggregated data to individual data was stressed. Additionally, the paper presents some biographical information.
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W związku z dużą skalą zjawiska ubóstwa, które nieodłącznie towarzyszy życiu społecznemu oraz gospodarczemu, bardzo ważnym elementem polityki publicznej na wszystkich szczeblach (międzynarodowym, krajowym i regionalnym) jest podejmowanie działań mających na celu jego ograniczanie. Działania te mają charakter interwencji publicznych i docelowo powinny prowadzić do pozytywnej zmiany strukturalnej. Nie zawsze jednak tak się dzieje-zatem przed realizacją konkretnego działania wskazane jest dokonanie dogłębnej analizy efektów jego wdrożenia – zarówno krótko, jak i długookresowych. W praktyce, skutki realizacji interwencji publicznych są najczęściej ocenianie ex-post w drodze tzw. ewaluacji, która jest trudnym procesem, realizowanym przy zastosowaniu różnorodnych metod. Istotą procesu ewaluacji nie powinna być jednak wyłącznie konstatacja zdarzeń minionych, ale przede wszystkim znajomość skutków planowanych działań, dlatego niniejszy artykuł koncentruje się głównie na analizie ex-ante wpływu interwencji publicznych na poziom ubóstwa, a jego celem jest przegląd metod, które mogą być w niej zastosowane, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem różnego rodzaju modeli.
EN
Due to the large scale of the phenomenon of poverty, a very important element of public policy at all levels (international, national and regional) is to undertake activities aimed at limiting this problem. These activities should ultimately lead to positive structural change. However, it does not always happen – so before the realization of a particular public intervention, it is advisable to make a thorough analysis of the effects of its implementation – both short and long term. In practice, the results of public intervention are mostly evaluated ex-post with the use of different methods. However, the essence of the evaluation process should not only be observation of past events, but also an acquaintance with the effects of planned activities. Hence, this article focuses mainly on ex-ante analyses of the impact of public intervention on levels of poverty, and its purpose is to review the methods that can be used in such analyses, with particular emphasis on various types of models.
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The study investigates whether economic growth in the Balkan countries was pro-poor in the most recent period. We also try to establish to what extent various measures of pro-poorness of economic growth produce consistent and comparable results. Firstly, concepts of pro-poor growth are defined and corresponding approaches toward measuring pro-poor growth are presented. We distinguish between measures based on a general class of pro-poor indices and a dominance-based techniques. In the empirical part of the study, we verified whether economic growth in six Balkan countries (Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Slovenia, Croatia and Serbia) was pro-poor in the 2012–2017 period. The analyses is based on the latest available panel data of the European Union Survey on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC). Growth was pro-poor in Croatia, Romania and Slovenia during the whole analysed period. The growth pattern was non pro-poor in Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia in certain years, mainly during periods of economic downfall. Various measures of pro-poor growth patterns do not produce consistent results in all instances. The results of the conducted comparative analysis suggest that the level of social benefits does not directly influence the pro-poor nature of the economic growth.
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The objective of this article is to analyze income inequality and poverty issue among ethnic groups in Malaysia. The government in spite of the historic, social and economic determinants inherited from British colonists, has managed this problem efficiently. This was achieved thanks to actual focus on the matter, during the long term development programs realization since the early 70s. These programs’ implementation caused an immediate outbreak of violence targeted to the wealthiest Chinese in 1969. Nowadays Malaysia can be an example of the country that is managing successfully with inequality and poverty reduction together with the high economic growth. It has to be highlighted that during the decades of income inequality elimination between Bumiputera and other ethnic groups, the political and social inequalities raised. Presently, they have an effect on Malaysian economy and population and also impact the country destabilization.
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All around the world many people suffer from the lack of sufficient income, well-being or good health. Who among the poor should we help first? Some of the most influential research on poverty has been developed by a famous economist and philosopher Amartya K. Sen. This article is concerned with the problem of reciprocal relations between various concepts and theories of poverty, kinds of ethics and taking decisions about helping poor people. According to Sen, while taking decisions to help the poor we should base our arguments on the capability approach rather than on the basic needs approach, on the entitlement approach rather than the food availability decline, and on the capability rights system rather than utilitarianism.
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Objective: The problem of financial exclusion is closely correlated to the development of the financial market, also in the regional aspect. In less developed countries ignored by commercial financial institutions, the only chance for the community lies with local financial institutions focused on the implementation of social goals. These can be, for example, microfinance institutions focused on serving poor and socially excluded people. Currently, microfinance institutions run their operations all over the world, in the richest countries and in poor ones. The aim of this article is to define and present the problem of financial exclusion and to examine microfinance as a way of mitigating the problem. Microfinance helps to mitigate financial exclusion, enabling social inclusion for many people via financial products tailored to their needs. Research Design & Methods: The research offers conclusions based on analysis of data and reports published by microfinance institutions and deductive and inductive reasoning. Findings: The research results show that financial inclusion plays a vital role in economic development and poverty alleviation. In order to improve access and usage of banking products, it is also necessary to increase financial awareness and knowledge. MFIs should strive to achieve social goals. Implications/Recommendations: Microfinance institutions all over the world should strive to achieve social goals through a wide range of microfinance products, and not only through microcredit. In order to increase the impact of microfinance institutions and achieve social goals, a scenario for the functioning of MFIs was proposed. This scenario assumes co-implementation of social and commercial goals, which is a condition of retaining the idea of microfinance. Contribution: The article presents the proposed model of microfinance activity which takes into account social goals and the digitisation of activities.
EN
The aim of our research is to examine how individual dimensions of globalization affect economic poverty in the World. For this, regression models are estimated with FGT0 or FGT1 poverty measures as dependent variables and KOF indices of globalization as dependent variables. The poverty indices are estimated for 119 countries’ income distributions assuming log-normality and using Gini estimates from the WID2 database and GDP/capita from The World Bank database for the years 1990-2005. It has turned out that the “partial” impact of selected dimension of globalization on poverty is either linear or nonlinear, ceteris paribus. The nonlinear impact is of the U-shaped form or the inverted U-shaped form. Our results contradict some typical ‘linear’ findings when poverty measures are regressed only on one dimension of globalization. In other words, when some crucial dimensions of globalization are neglected in regression analysis the conclusions about impact of globalization on world poverty could be misleading.
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Objectives. The aim of the study is to conceptualize the term poverty from the viewpoint of the importance attributed to the term, the assumed causes of poverty, the reasons for poverty perpetuation, and the assumed possibilities of escaping from poverty. Participants and analysis. The study did a discourse analysis of statements using open coding. This was carried out on research sample N = 52 of the general population aged 15–56 (M = 25.92, SD = 8.22). Results. It was found that poverty is presented differently in the discourses of a person’s own potential poverty and the poverty of others, also when describing the state of being poor and the process of “becoming” poor. Furthermore, the analysis pointed to two discursive lines concerning the causes of poverty, reasons for poverty perpetuation and the possibilities of escaping from poverty: the individualistic discourse thematizing the role of an individual and the structuralist discourse thematizing society. Study limitations. The limitation of the study dwells in the method of collecting data in the form of statements that was conducted online, which was impersonal.
SK
Cieľ. Cieľom štúdie bolo konceptualizovať pojem chudoba z hľadiska dôležitosti pripisovanej tomuto pojmu, predpokladané príčiny chudoby, dôvody na zotrvávanie v chudobe a predpokladané možnosti vymanenia sa z chudoby. Výskumný súbor a analýza. V štúdii bola realizovaná diskurzívna analýza výrokov s využitím otvoreného kódovania. Výskumnú vzorku tvorilo 52 respondentov pochádzajúcich z netriedenej populácie vo veku 15-56 rokov (M = 25,92, SD = 8,22). Výsledky. Bolo zistené, že chudoba je prezentovaná odlišne v diskurzoch o potenciálnej vlastnej chudobe a chudobe iných osôb, rovnako odlišne, keď bola opisovaná chudoba ako stav a ako proces „stávania sa chudobným“. Okrem toho, analýza poukázala na dve diskurzívne línie týkajúce sa príčin chudoby, príčin zotrvávania v chudobe a možnosti vymanenia sa z chudoby: individualistický diskurz tematizujúci úlohu jednotlivca a štrukturalistický tematizujúci úlohu spoločnosti. Obmedzenia výskumu. Obmedzením štúdie bolspôsob zberu údajov vo forme výrokov uskutočnený on-line formou, čo bolo neosobné.
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Objectives. The objective of the present study was twofold: 1) to examine the direct relationship between the objective low income and subjective well-being 2) to test the indirect relationship of objective, income to subjective wellbeing mediated by the level of satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. Sample and setting. The sample comprised 118 low income participants aged between 18 and 60 years (M=37.07, SD=12.04). Hypotheses. 1) The lower the objective income would be the less satisfied people would be with their life, the less often they would experience positive emotions and the more often negative emotions. 2) The more they would be satisfied with their three basic psychological needs, the more they would be satisfied with their life, the more often they would experience positive and the less often negative emotions. 3) The relationship of low income and subjective well-being would be partly mediated by the satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs. Statistical analysis and results. Using path-analysis it was found that: 1) Low income was in a direct relationship only to the cognitive component of subjective well-being. 2) Low income had a negative relationship to the satisfaction of the relatedness need. 3) Need of relatedness had nevertheless a positive direct and indirect relationship to the variables of subjective wellbeing: direct – a higher satisfaction with life and higher frequency of experiencing positive emotions, the indirect – it was in a positive relation to satisfying the need for autonomy, what mediated a higher life satisfaction score, higher frequency of positive experiencing rate and low rate of the frequency of negative experiencing. The limitations of the results with regard to the size of the research sample and to the validity of the findings obtained are pointed out.
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Ciele. Cieľ tejto štúdie bol dvojaký: 1) Preskúmať vzťah nízkeho objektívneho príjmu a subjektívnej pohody. 2) Testovať nepriamy vzťah objektívneho príjmu k subjektívnej pohode mediovaný úrovňou uspokojenia troch bazálnych psychologických potrieb. Súbor. Výskumný súbor predstavoval N = 118 osôb s nízkym príjmom vo veku 18 až 60 rokov (M = 37,07, SD = 12,04). Hypotézy. 1) Čím nižší objektívny príjem, tým nižšia spokojnosť so životom, menej časté prežívanie pozitívnych emócií a časté prežívanie negatívnych emócií. 2) Čím vyššia spokojnosť s troma základnými psychologickými potrebami, tým vyššia spokojnosť so životom a častejšie prežívanie pozitívnych emócií a menej časté negatívnych emócií. 3) Vzťah nízkeho príjmu a subjektívnej pohody je čiastočne mediovaný uspokojením základných psychologických potrieb. Štatistická analýza a výsledky. Pomocou path- -analýzy bolo zistené, že: 1) Nízky príjem bol v priamom vzťahu len ku kognitívnemu komponentu subjektívnej pohody. 2) Nízky príjem mal negatívny vzťah k uspokojovaniu potreby spolupatričnosti. 3) Potreba spolupatričnosti mala napriek tomu pozitívny priamy aj nepriamy vzťah k premenným subjektívnej pohody: priamy – vyššia spokojnosť so životom a vyššia frekvencia prežívania pozitívnych emócií, nepriamy – bola v pozitívnom vzťahu k uspokojovaniu potreby autonómie, a to sprostredkovalo vyššie skóre v spokojnosti so životom a vo frekvencii pozitívneho prežívania a nízke skóre vo frekvencii negatívneho prežívania. Na obmedzenia získaných výsledkov je upozornené z hľadiska veľkosti výskumnej vzorky a z aspektu platnosti získaných zistení.
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On the threshold of the 21st century, the problem of poverty remains unresolved. Many still suffer from hunger, and many more have no access to running water, or education. This raises a fundamental question that has bothered economy researchers for centuries: What determines the wealth of some countries, and the poverty of others? One of the contemporary researchers analysing the causes of poverty and development barriers is Indian economist Amartya Kumar Sen. Referring to the socio-economic theory of Sen, the author indicates that modernity implies the need for reflection on the definition of poverty. The author attempts to justify the thesis which focuses on the discord between the evaluation concepts of good and evil with objective economic factors defining poverty. The author suggests that the definition of poverty should be grounded in considerations concerning good and evil in a specific time, as well as cultural and historical context.
EN
Development economics emerged as a separate discipline of economic science in the 1950s but it wasn’t until the 1960s and mid-1970s that it began to draw serious attention. Gradually, an extensive literature concerning economic development was built up. In the 1980s it turned out, however, that despite some successes, the economic growth in most of medium and less developed countries was not as high as expected. During the 1980s and 1990s, the so-called Washington Consensus dominated the theory and practice of economic development. This notion covered the whole range of activities that were to lead the developing countries to improved welfare and prosperity. It included strict fiscal and monetary policies, deregulation, foreign trade and capital flow liberalisation, elimination of government subsidies, moderate taxation, liberalisation of interest rates, maintaining low inflation, etc. Based on the developmental experience of over past ten years, a new paradigm of development is emerging, the elements of which can be described as follows: (1) the basic economic environment should encourage the long-term investment in (2) the economy should have a high sensitivity to market stimuli (3) human capital must complement physical capital (4) due to the fast flow and absorption of information in the rapidly changing world, the key role is played by institutions and mechanisms that jointly respond to stimuli (5) wherever market failures occur, an intervention of the state should be market-friendly 6) social equality must be guaranteed if the economic development is to take place on a sustainable basis.
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Objectives. The aim of this study was to identify the differences in negative affect and life satisfaction in the context of subjective poverty, objective poverty, marital status, economic activity and gender. In particular, the significance of poverty variables. Participants and settings. The research sample consisted of 499 Slovak respondents (249 women; 250 men, average age M = 39.60, SD = = 11.47). Data were collected using the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Negative Affect Scale from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The subjective assessment of poverty was measured by the question “In your economic situation, is it possible to make ends meet?” and objective poverty by “What is your monthly income after taxes?” Hypotheses. It was hypothesized the main effects of objective poverty and subjective poverty on negative affect and life satisfaction and interaction effects of objective poverty and subjective poverty with other selected independent variables (marital status, economic activity, gender) on negative affect and life satisfaction. Statistical analysis. MANOVA was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The results confirm the main effect of subjective poverty in life satisfaction and negative affect. In terms of life satisfaction, interactions between gender and objective poverty, gender and subjective poverty as well as between gender, marital status and economic activity were found. With regards to negative affect, the study found interactions between gender and objective poverty as well as between objective poverty and subjective poverty. Study limitations. The limitation of this study is the failure to include certain variables into the analysis such as the size of residence by population, regions according to the unemployment rate or gender roles.
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Cieľ. Cieľom príspevku je identifikovať rozdiely v prežívaní negatívneho afektu a životnej spokojnosti v kontexte subjektívnej chudoby, objektívnej chudoby, manželského stavu, ekonomickej aktivity a rodu. Bola sledovaná najmä významnosť premenných chudoby. Výskumný súbor a nástroje. Výskumný súbor pozostával zo 499 slovenských respondentov (249 žien; 250 mužov, priemerný vek M = 39.60, SD = 11.47). Testovú batériu tvorila Škála spokojnosti so životom a Škála negatívneho afektu z Dotazníka pozitívneho a negatívneho afektu (PANAS). Subjektívne hodnotenie chudoby bolo merané otázkou: „Dá sa vo Vašej ekonomickej situácii vystačiť s tým, čo máte?“ a objektívna chudoba pomocou otázky: „Aký je Váš čistý mesačný príjem (myslí sa príjem po zdanení)?“ Hypotézy. Boli predpokladané hlavné efekty objektívnej chudoby a subjektívnej chudoby na prežívanie negatívneho afektu a životnej spokojnosti a interakčné efekty objektívnej chudoby a subjektívnej chudoby s inými vybranými nezávislými premennými (manželský stav, ekonomická aktivita, rod) na prežívanie negatívneho afektu a životnej spokojnosti. Štatistická analýza. Na štatistickú analýzu bola použitá MANOVA. Výsledky. Výsledky potvrdili hlavný efekt subjektívnej chudoby pri životnej spokojnosti a negatívnom afekte. Z hľadiska životnej spokojnosti bola zistená interakcia rodu a objektívnej chudoby, rodu a subjektívnej chudoby a tiež rodu, manželského stavu a ekonomickej aktivity. V rámci negatívneho afektu boli v štúdii zistené interakcie rodu a objektívnej chudoby, ako aj objektívnej chudoby a subjektívnej chudoby. Obmedzenia štúdie. Obmedzením štúdie je nezahrnutie niektorých premenných do analýzy, ako veľkosť bydliska podľa počtu obyvateľov, kraje podľa miery nezamestnanosti či rodové roly.
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