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1
Content available remote Salience and second dialect acquisition
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EN
This paper explores to what extent salience is a reliable predictor of second dialect acquisition (SDA). I apply a salience-based approach, according to which the adoption or rejection of a number of linguistic forms is determined by their (socio)linguistic properties, to data from a study of the accommodation of university students from Moravia living in Prague (Wilson 2010). Linguists have tested a salience approach in the analysis of language change, dialect levelling and long-term linguistic accommodation, advancing a set of criteria according to which linguistic features are considered “salient” or “non-salient”. I advance a framework for evaluating the salience of six Common Czech (CC) forms and test its effectiveness in predicting which, and to what degree, CC forms are assimilated. I argue that salience alone cannot explain the direction of accommodation or the intensity of SDA and that it is overridden by numerous external factors that are related both to the linguistic variables and to individual speakers.
2
Content available remote Suppression of literal meanings in L2 idiom processing: Does context help?
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EN
Most current idiom processing models acknowledge, after Gernsbacher and Robertson (1999) that deriving an idiomatic meaning entails suppression of contextually inappropriate, literal meanings of idiom constituent words. While embedding idioms in the rich disambiguating context can promote earlier suppression of incompatible literal meanings, idioms embedded in the neutral context, favoring neither their literal nor figurative reading, are likely to become disambiguated much later in the course of their comprehension. The study reported in this paper investigates the role of context in suppressing irrelevant, literal meanings of idioms in the course of their processing by Polish proficient speakers of English. Ambiguous (literally plausible) English idioms were embedded in sentences which were either neutral (i.e., did not bias either the literal or figurative reading of the idiom, e.g., There was no need to add fuel to the fire) or figurative-biased (e.g., The chairman is in a bad mood so do not say anything, as this will only add fuel to the fire) and followed by targets related literally (e.g., HEAT) or figuratively (e.g., WORSE) to idiom meanings and displayed either immediately at idiom offset (0 ms) or after 300 ms. The self-paced reading paradigm was employed, in which participants first read the idiomatic sentences at their own pace and then made a lexical decision, i.e., decided if the displayed target string is a legitimate English word or not. Context was shown to play an important role in suppressing irrelevant meanings, but its effects were modulated by salience (prominence) of idioms’ literal meanings as well as the time that elapsed from the end of the sentence to the display of the target stimulus.
3
Content available The Political Representation of Salient Issues
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EN
This paper deals with research into the quality of democracy and political representation and intends to make two contributions to the debate on the representation of citizens’ preferences in Eastern Europe. First, attention is focused on the level of congruence in a period of transition (1998–2001) in two countries: Hungary and Poland. The intent is to demonstrate that political representation, understood as a congruence of preferences on issues, is present in transitional democracies and improves in Poland from 1997 to 2001. Second, differences in congruence are accounted for. The first hypothesis is that citizens’ and parliamentarians’ rankings of the importance of issues will differ due to the different reasons these groups become involved in politics. Secondly, the variation of congruence is explained by the importance (salience) citizens attribute to an issue. Furthermore, saliency makes political parties crowd to represent the majority preference. On less salient issues political party representatives hold to their ideological preferences. For comparison purposes congruence is operationalized as a ‘one to many linkage’ and is measured in accord with the measurements of Kitschelt et al. (1999) of absolute and relative representation. The hypotheses are tested using data from 1997 and 2001 for Poland and 1998 for Hungary. The data allows for measuring policy preference on a range of issues in economic, social, cultural, and foreign policy domains. The measures of congruence are unique in recording the preferences of a sample of citizens and a sample of representatives in both countries. For citizens, the analysis was conducted at the level of individuals and party-supporter groups, while for the MPs, it was conducted at the level of political party groups. The findings have implications for the study of how saliency affects political representation and contribute to the understanding of the transition to democracy in Eastern Europe.
EN
Scenario studies are seen as useful tools to support planning and decision making processes because they provide integrated projections of future trends and developments and their impacts on land use. They play an important role in facilitating cooperation and interaction at the science policy interface. This article contributes to new understandings of the role of science-based tools and instruments such as scenario studies at the science-policy interface. It uses a theoretical framework that connects the criteria of credibility, salience and legitimacy to the concepts of coproduction and boundary object to analyze the EUruralis project; a scenario study that addresses the future of agriculture and rural development in Europe. The findings demonstrate that aspects related to legitimacy contributed to the capacity of the EUruralis to function as a boundary object between the scientists and policymakers involved. They also show how cooperation in the EUruralis project resulted in joint learning and reflection. The article concludes by discussing the role of the EUruralis as a boundary object and connecting the findings to the concept of coproduction.
EN
This article explores why citizens express varying levels of trust across six institutions of political representation within the Czech Republic using a set of rival models. In addressing this question, this study argues that systematic differences in institutional trust are related to salience. Institutions with high visibility or salience to the public, i.e. government, lower chamber and president, will be trusted on the basis of their perceived political and economic performance. In contrast, institutions that are less salient to citizens are not evaluated on the basis of performance but on more diffuse criteria. Competing models of trust are divided into two groups. Top down explanations emphasise what institutions do; and hence focus on political and economic performance. Bottom up accounts of institutional trust refer to social mechanisms such as values, culture and knowledge. The empirical results presented in this study reveal that trust in salient political institutions is more strongly shaped by political performance. Otherwise, there is no systematic pattern to the determinants of trust in political institutions. These results suggest that citizen trust in political institutions emerges from a variety of top down and bottom up mechanisms, where salient institutions are different in that they are evaluated more on the basis of the political performance of office-holders.
7
Content available Lexical Concepts as Fluctuating Structures
86%
PL
Lexical concepts (i.e. semantic units conventionally associated with linguistic forms) are viewed in the article as structures consisting of interrelated facets (i.e. conceptual slots filled with various types of information about the referent) with different structural weight. The paper suggests a way to model the graded structure of lexical concepts by assessing the weight of each constituting facet according to its relevance for defining purposes, frequency of contextual profiling and salience in derivation processes. Thus, the approach taken exploits as many linguistic points of access to the concept as possible and uses three different dimensions to range its facets. The suggested idea is verified with a case study of some common lexical concepts in English (e.g. represented by concrete nouns such as “bird”, “tree”, etc.), which reveals both the advantages and the limitations of the approach taken.
EN
This discussion will draw on a series of written stories and commentaries on professional values in nursing for a cross-cultural pragmatics study of US nursing students in North Carolina and Chinese nursing students in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. We explore cultural differences in salience as a pragmatics construct for a professional construct important in nursing, that of caring. The nursing students were not in direct contact with each other except through written stories and commentaries:The Chinese nurses first wrote their thoughts in Mandarin and then translated them into English, after which the US students read and responded to them. The nursing students from both countries assumed that they shared constructs of what constituted professional values in nursing. However, our discussion will question the degree to which they shared common ground and assigned similar salience to the construct. We conclude that the Chinese and the US student nurses erroneously assumed that they shared each other’s understanding of ‘caring,’ underestimating the differences in work environment and cultural expectations. We also propose that they are readily capable, through communication, of recalibrating their reference frames once made aware that they differ.
EN
In recent work, I have laid the foundations of a framework which I refer to as applied ethnolinguistics, and which is intended as a tool that can be used in the advanced foreign language classroom to make students aware of the fact that the language they are learning contains numerous cues that can help them gain a better understanding of the cultural values generally upheld by native speakers of their chosen foreign language. The notions of languaculture, abductive reasoning, and salience will be integrated into what is hoped to be a coherent procedure for dealing with apparently inexplicable cultural behaviours. Six pathways, ethnolexicology, ethnorhetoric, ethnophraseology, ethnosyntax, ethnopragmatics, and ethnoaxiology, are proposed as specific directions guiding the process of language and culture teaching in a multicultural classroom.
PL
W jednej z niedawnych prac autor zaproponował model etnolingwistyki stosowanej jako narzędzia do wykorzystania w nauce języka obcego na poziomie zaawansowanym (na uczelniach wyższych). Model ten ma służyć uświadomieniu studentom, iż poznają oni liczne wskazówki mogące pomóc w zrozumieniu wartości kulturowych wyznawanych przez rodzimych użytkowników danego języka obcego. Jest to zintegrowany model łączący pojęcia języko-kultury, abdukcji i wyrazistości, mający pomóc w zrozumieniu pozornie niewytłumaczalnych zachowań o podłożu kulturowym. Służy temu sześć „ścieżek” funkcjonujących jako drogowskazy dla nauczycieli i studentów, pomagających im wykorzystać możliwości stwarzane przez kontekst wielokulturowych zajęć uniwersyteckich; są to: etnoleksykologia, etnoretoryka, etnofrazeologia, etnoskładnia, etnopragmatyka i etnoaksjologia.
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