was to evaluate the safety of one-day thyroid surgery based on the assessment of the incidence of early postoperative complications. Material and methods. The study comprised 726 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy during the period between January, 2012 and February, 2013. The study considered the three most common thyroidectomy complications. Results. In the group of 726 patients, recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis was observed in 22 cases, accounting for 3.07% of all patients. Postoperative bleeding was observed in 12 cases (1.65%). In 8 cases, bleeding occurred during the first 8 hours after surgery, while in the remaining four cases- 9, 12, 18, and 26 hours after surgery. The study group was divided into three subgroups, in which the concentrations of calcium and parathyroid hormone, 6 hours and 20 hours after surgery, were determined. In the first group (223 patients), only the parathyroid hormone level was determined. The decreased PTH level was associated with the appearance of tetany symptoms in 15% of cases. Amongst patients in whom the parathyroid hormone level was normal, tetany symptoms were observed in 0.5% of cases. In the second group (256 patients), only the serum calcium level was determined. Amongst patients with normal serum calcium levels, 1% of cases presented with tetany symptoms. In patients where the serum calcium level was reduced, tetany symptoms appeared in 35% of cases. In the third group (247 patients), both serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were determined. In the group of patients with normal, both serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, tetany symptoms were not observed. Amongst patients with normal serum calcium levels and decreased PTH levels on the day of surgery, tetany symptoms were observed in 25% of cases, while during the first postoperative day-37% of cases. Conclusion. One-day thyroid surgery, due to the appearance of complications cannot be regarded as a completely safe procedure.