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EN
The article analyses the etiological legends, narratives associated with the biblical plots, as well as other stories with Christian motifs, recorded during field researches in Eastern Slovakia in 2014 and 2018. All of them have axiological focus. They offer a national assessment of the world formation, current events and people’s behaviour. Narratives are included in the wider context of similar folklore facts of other Slavic traditions, which afford an opportunity to understand the specifics of local Ruthenian micro tradition in the aspect of axiological understanding of the world.
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Content available remote SKLENÉ KORÁLIKY Z DOBY HALŠTATSKEJ NA VÝCHODNOM SLOVENSKU
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EN
Finds of glass beads from Eastern Slovakia are recorded on several sites. An undecorated red-brown bead from the burial ground in Vojnatina, distr. of Sobrance, from the end of the Bronze Age or the beginning of the Hallstatt period belongs to the oldest finds. Other specimens belong to the young and the late Hallstatt period. The largest collection of glass beads of various types comes from the cemetery in Ždaňa, distr. of Košice-okolie, on the basis of existing finds; this cemetery has been provisionally dated back to the HD stage. Among the glass beads from Eastern Slovakia, types chronologically comparable to finds in the Vekerzug culture within the Carpathian Basin prevail considerably. In a wider cultural context, these glass beads can be compared to the finds from the East-Hallstatt sphere. The specimens from the late Hallstatt settlement in Rad, distr. of Trebišov, rang among rare types with some analogies in the cultures north and east of the Carpathians.
Slavica Slovaca
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2006
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tom 41
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nr 2
136-167
EN
'Sariský spevnik' (Saris song-book) has been so far by the scholars referred to as 'Moskovsky spevnik' (Moscow song-book) - according to the place of its storage. This song-book is usually mentioned in a connection with a song entitled 'Dina Rusnaci' in which the relationships between the Slovak and the Rusin ethnica are reflected. The song is also included in the appendix to Jan Kollar's 'Narodnie spievanky' (Folk songs) from 1835. Saris song-book is at present preserved in the Lomonosov Moscow State University Library. It was A. Petrov who made a mention of its existence for the first time. He drew the attention of the scholars to the fact that the song-book originated in Eastern Slovakia. An extensive description was published by Frantisek Tichý. The Saris song-book consists of 208 folios. The song-book was created by the way of a successive addition of the individual folios of a diverse quality dating back to the beginning of the 18th century. It. was studied and prepared for edition by F. Tichý in 1929 but apart from an extensive paper from 1931 no edition has been realized so far. In the years 1933-1934, the Saris song-book was studied by V. N. Peretc. But the analysis was published no sooner than 1962. The accent of his study lies on the secular songs. He dated the paper of the song book to the beginning of the 18th century, of course except for the part in which Speranskij found the watermarks from 1730-1733.The song book was written by the several hands but the main part of it is written in cursive script originating from the 1720´s. It contains also the parts written in the Cyrillic semi-uncial script much older than the beginning of the 18th century. The provenance of the Moscow song-book can be undoubtedly determined: it originates from the Eastern Slovakia. Not only the language of individual songs but several marginal records as well attest to this fact. V. N. Peretc could not finish his investigations as he fell into disgrace in the 1930´s and was arrested in 1934. From that time on, the ms. was considered to have been lost. But recently, thanks to the cooperation of Lydia Sazonova, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Saris song-book has been found and identified again. Now, a digitalized copy of it is a part of the database in the Jan Stanislav Institute of Slavistics in Bratislava, thanks to the support of Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung and prof. Hans Rothe.
EN
The study covers playing musical analysis of Ruthenia traditional music band Humeníkovci from the village Vyšný Orlík, near the town Svidník. In the analytic part, the author focuses on variation techniques of the first violinist and the performance of the accompanying instruments from rhythmic and harmonic point of view. The part of the study is represented by interview transcriptions with family members of the musicians about life within the music band Humeníkovci. The study tends to define musical style of Eastern Slovakia based on the description of stylistic elements identified within the musical expression of the researched ensemble.
EN
The collection of Roma songs by Jozef Kolarčík (1899 – 1961) documents the song repertoire of Roma in eastern Slovakia (regions of Šariš, Gemer) and abroad (Romania) in the first half of the 20th century, with the focus on the 1930s and ’40s. It contains manuscript records of Roma songs, coming from 14 localities and recorded from 36 singers. Although the main focus of the collection is on song texts, research identified 179 records with musical content (tunes, sketches, fragments). Kolarčík’s collection conception was based on fieldwork in the milieu of the Roma communities. His work as a collector overlapped with the field of social study, and his results could serve also to raise the level of information in the majority community about the Roma ethnic group.
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Content available remote NÁLEZY KERAMICKÝCH FAJOK Z ARCHEOLOGICKÝCH VÝSKUMOV A PROSPEKCIÍ NA SLOVENSKU
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EN
In the first part of the multi-volume series about finds made of ceramic and other materials from archaeological explorations and prospections in Slovakia, the authors have focused on the evaluation of finds of pipes from archaeological activities of the company Archeológia Zemplín from Michalovce, carried out during the years 2009–2010. Based on a detailed survey of the problem´s treatment, they point to the starting points of the study of pipes at present. At the same time, they introduce a formalised way of the description of pipes and evaluation of the set of finds consisting of 30 pipe finds dated from the 17th to the 20th century.
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Content available remote POHREBISKO KOŠTIANSKEJ KULTÚRY V KOŠICIACH
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EN
Origin of the Košťany culture partly explained material (research in the years 1965 – 1966) from the cemetery on the position Nižné Kapustníky in Košice. The cemetery is situated in the inundation area river Hornád, south of the heating plant. Overall was uncovered 2400 m2. Graves of the Košťany culture are spread almost in regular rows and the average distance between them is about 150 cm. The graves don´t forming isolated groups by age, gender or social affiliation. In all the tombs were found buried skeletal individuals in a crouched position. The most widely combination in two skeletal graves is mother with a child. Several graves were damaged contemporaries (stealing), younger interventions of the Otomany culture (superposition) and modern sand and gravel mining. Type chronological analysis, horizontal stratigraphy and partly seriation was foundation for internal chronology of the cemetery. There are three developmental stages: initial, transient and classic Košťany culture.
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Študijné zvesti
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2021
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tom 68
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nr 2
193 - 226
EN
A selection of unpublished samples of Eneolithic daub with distinct construction imprints are the information source of the study. Based on them, constructional bindings and methods of not only production, commercial features (reinforced hearths, domed kilns, production-commercial structures with light construction/roofing) or functionally specifically designed settlement features (linear fence/enclosure) can be created. Individual samples come exclusively from several Baden settlement features (find contexts) selected from prehistoric sites of eastern Slovakia (Brehov, Kašov, Prešov-Solivar, Šarišské Michaľany, Veľká Lomnica, Zemplínske Hradište, Zemplínske Kopčany), where many unanswered questions remain in the Eneolithic settlement. After evaluation of the daub, it is clear that basically almost identical or similar technological, constructional and building methods (solutions) occur in all cases of architectural reconstruction of construction blocks and constructional-architectonic complexes. The methods differ from each other only with small construction alternations, i.e. presence/absence of construction elements, construction bindings or construction forms. Some are complemented with specific technological-constructional design.
Konštantínove listy
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2016
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tom 9
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nr 1
199 – 209
EN
Cyrillic manuscripts show evidence of the Byzantine‑Slavic cultural and traditional formation and development in Slovakia, as well as in the milieu of Slovak ethnic society. From a linguistic point of view and based on the provenance of the described realia, they are an integral part of the Slovak national culture. Mentioned manuscripts thereby represent an important and integral part of the confessional identity of inhabitants of the region, although after the fall of Great Moravia, Latin cultural tradition eventually prevailed in the middle Danube region.
EN
There is a gap in the microfinance literature on micro savings as a form of microfinance; and their impact on clients, micro enterprises, households, communities, and financial institutions. Microfinance arises as a new tool in developing as well as developed countries. It is widely known since the 1970's and often connected with the name of Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus. The aim of the paper is to analyze effects of micro savings programs on well-being of poor households participating in micro savings program in Eastern Slovakia. According to the results active and successful clients perceive positive change in level of their household management and they perceive their ability to manage household better than unsuccessful clients. Furthermore, active and successful clients perceive positive subjective change in quality of living and they perceive higher level of overall quality of living than unsuccessful clients. Based on a sample of 112 households from three towns (Ostrovany, Stara Lubovna and Moldava nad Bodvou) subjective perception and objective change in well-being of households are assessed and it is argued that the programs have positive effects on poverty and contribute to poverty alleviation.
Slavica Slovaca
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2012
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tom 47
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nr 2
153 - 159
EN
Calendar customs represent a permanent part of the cultural calendar of local communities in both towns and villages. They include ceremonies and customs, related to important festive days throughout the year. Calendar custom tradition however, has under the social and cultural life system its un-replaceable position. Making a special feeling of festivals continues to be its dominant function. It ensures the continuity of culture, transition of social experiences and it plays also significant integration and psycho-emotional roles in life of the individual, family and community.
EN
When it comes to Bronze Age, the archaeological site Gánovce is mainly known due to significant finds collection from the filling of a ritual well, which was excavated in the location Hrádok during the travertine exploitation. There is less information available about the settlement agglomerations, which surrounded and was connected to this locality of Central-European importance. One of them was situated in the close proximity on the eastern edge of the site Hrádok, at the location Za stodolami. Most of the archaeological finds, which were there acquired by several surface prospections during 2019–2020 can be dated to the end of Early Bronze Age and fully reflect the traditions of Otomani-Füzesabony Cultural Complex. In addition to ceramic, a significant collection of ground stone artefacts, pottery, and bone tools have been documented. Among those were identified two fragmentary preserved moulds made of stone, which were analysed by SEM-EDX method confirming the presence of melted metal. Thus they reliably prove the local metallurgical production, which along with the other craft activities could have significant economic meaning for the community inhabiting the surroundings of the central site Gánovce-Hrádok.
Slavica Slovaca
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2011
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tom 46
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nr 2
161 – 166
EN
The article contains results of the research of the manuscript (late 18th century, Eastern Slovakia) based on author’s master‘s thesis. The author has described the appearance of the manuscript, graphics and some morphological and lexical characteristics. She has also found and reviewed a literary source - ancient Russian Khozhdenie igumena Daniila of the 12th century (mistakes in grammar and specific word usage as well as some other characteristics of the information transfer point to the origins of the manuscript – Trans Carpathian area). The text contains a large number of facts that reflect the mutual influence of the cultures of the neighbouring nations.
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tom 50
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nr 3
3 -102
EN
The Orthodox believers came to the Catholic Church in Uzhgorod in 1646. It was established the Uniate Church managed by Mukacheve bishops of the Byzantine rite, but de jure were was located in the territory of the Roman Catholic Bishopric of Eger. Only in 1771 it was created the Mukacheve Greek Catholic bishopric. Between 1726 - 1816 there was wrought several documents in the office of the Latin bishop of Eger. The record test of the Byzantine-rite priests has special places among them. Testing took place within the canonical visitation, when the Latin Bishop visited not only Roman Catholic priests, but also Greek Catholic presbyters and Protestant pastors. Scrutiny revealed the truth about the theological and ecclesiastical level and personal discipline. Presbyters were uneducated and did not know the theological doctrine of their religious beliefs were the simple folk level. This study shows the context of the document and its significance. Part of the study is a faithful transcription of the Latin document and its Slovak translation.
EN
Until the fall of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Eastern Slovakia and present-day Transcarpathia (Zakarpattia; until 1919 Hungarian Rus’; between 1919 and 1939 Subcarpathian Rus’) were peripheral territories, which were reflected in the harsh living conditions of their inhabitants and consequent mass emigration. In Hungary Slovaks and Rusyns facing not only economic but also national discrimination (Magyarization), provided support to each other. They welcomed Czechoslovakia as a state in which their position would significantly change. However, while, in the case of Slovaks, there was gradual national unification and constitutionalization, the Rusyns divided into three ethnic groups – Rusyn, Ukrainian and Russian. At the same time, the existing cooperation between Slovaks and Rusyns was impaired by the difficulty of solving the conflict regarding the territory of north-eastern Slovakia (where both populations lived).
EN
The thesis deals with selected factors that were influencing the development of employees ́ number of Eastern Slovakia Steel factory. The company, today under the name United States Steel Corporation, is situated in Košice, the second largest city of Slovakia, with more than 240,000 citizens. However, during the 1950s the city had approximately 60,000 citizens only, but the census of 1980 recorded in excess 200,000 citizens. The years from 1948 to 1989 are characterized by the strong influence of totalitarian regime and government interference in both economic as well as social life of citizens. Above all the interests of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics had to be respected, which was reflected also in the type of industrialization and its focus on the Cold War development. In the Czechoslovak Republic the idea of increased industrialization was enforced on the territory of today’s Slovakia. One of the plans was the industrialization of population-rich, but economically declining eastern Slovakia. Košice represented a strategic centre of the eastern part of the republic, in which the construction of industrial enterprises was supposed to be carried out and which impacted on the population. The construction of Eastern Slovakia Steel factory started in 1960. The factory was supposed to provide the biggest number of job opportunities not only in the Košice city, but also in the nearby districts, which led to migration of the population. Therefore, this thesis focuses on depiction of the relation between industrialization and the physical movement of people. There are two types of recruitment actions and activities for gaining workers described in this article. Through numerical data recorded in charts and graphs the rate of recruitment percentage together with explanation of causes stated in reports is highlighted. Additionally, propaganda activities which played a significant role in appealing to public are also depicted. The articles in newspapers and company brochures were supposed to be in favour of gaining persons into employment for metallurgical factory. The article offers opportunities for better understanding of the mutual relation and influence between political system, industrialization and the society. Here, the intention was the systematization of statistical data that may represent resource for further research in the field of development of Košice, the growth of the population and the total transformation of the city.
EN
The study is focused on assessment of the settlement in the region of Šariš in the drainage basin of the Sekčov and its contributaries. It contains a database and map materials with indicated archaeological sites from the periods of the Paleolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic, Bronze Age, Hallstatt, La Tène and Roman periods. With regard to the amount and complexity of the information excerpted from analyses in the GIS environment, we have decided to publish the results of our research in two stages, in the chronological succession of subsequent periods. In the first stage, we synthesize – by means of the submitted publication – results of the research from the early prehistoric periods (Paleolithic, Neolithic, Eneolithic). We analyze natural properties of the settled sites in association with the potential water streams and the distance from them, the route of the main communication corridor, the character of slopes and altitude of the terrain, the composition and fertility value of pedo-ecological units (BPEJ/FVPEU), their typology-production categories (TPK/TPC), as well as with other indicators, with their possible tracing in the modern landscape. The suggested settlement zones and their characteristics are finally confronted with previously published information on the settlement near the upper and middle river Torysa.
EN
When Czechoslovakia was founded, Slovaks and Rusyns became state-forming nations with competences and ambitions they did not have in pre-1918 Hungary. Having found themselves in this position, the Rusyns, in 1919, requested a change in the name from the Czecho-Slovak Republic (CSR) to the Czecho-Slovak-Rusyn Republic which, de facto, reflected the actual situation after the Treaty of Saint-Germain was signed in September 1919, when Carpathian Ruthenia became a part of the CSR. Rusyns, however, faced radical rejection and were given an explanation that Czechoslovakia had been internationally recognised as a new state and it was under that name the country was referred to in the key peace agreements, which was why any changes at that point were impossible. In the CSR, Rusyns and Slovaks got into conflict over the contact territory (North-Eastern Slovakia) and the shared (administrative) border dividing Slovakia from autonomous Carpathian Ruthenia. The conflict started in 1919 and continued throughout the entire interwar period.
EN
Choice of a proper approach to individual welfare measurement is an important element of poverty measurement process. The aim of the paper is to develop simple measures of individual welfare. Two alternative approaches to individual welfare estimation by direct method are used. The first approach is based on furnishings of households by goods of long-term consumption. The second approach is based on the structure of households' expenses. Index of households' furnishings and index of expenses structure are proposed. Levels of the poorest households' welfare in Eastern Slovakia (mainly of Roma ethnic origin) are then compared. The sample consists of 170 households from Eastern Slovakia participating in micro savings program of ETP Slovakia. Values of indices are in close relation to equivalent disposable income. The proposed indices may serve as supplementary measures of individual welfare of households.
Vojenská história
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2016
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tom 20
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nr 4
152 - 180
EN
In the introduction to the article, the author informs briefly on the exhibition organized by the Eastern Slovakia Museum in Košice on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the outbreak of the World War I, titled This is what our grandfathers were like. World War 1. and Eastern Slovakia, 27 June 2014 – 7 December 2014. The author highlights that the most precious addition was the unique album of photographs from the battlefields of the World War 1, made by Anton Brecher (1888 – 1964) living in Košice for a major part of his life. After entering the military service, he became the military photographer and thanks to this undisputed benefit, he managed to survive for the full four years without serious injury on the frontline. The album also contains paintings with military topic, made by Brecher. The captions contain not only the subject of the photographs but also the place (municipality, town and significant geographic data) and time (usually the month and year, sometimes even the specific date) of shooting. The caption texts are in Hungarian, apart from the majority of military terms, which are in German. The album contains primarily the shots of combat activity of the Austro-Hungarian Army units on the frontline (building trenches, infantry fire and shellfire, transfers of soldiers, meetings of officers, caring for the wounded, burying the fallen, etc.). Another interesting part comprises the photographs depicting the situation in the rear, leisure time and typical entertainment of the soldiers.
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