Dyslipidemia, is a major risk factor for premature coronary artery disease. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia (blood lipid abnormalities) and other risk factors associated with coronary artery diseases among an adult population in northeastern China. Throughout the months of September and October of 2007,a population-based cross-sectional study was conducted and a total of 3,815 individuals were included. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors associated with dyslipidemia. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and hypertriglyceridemia were 17.3%, 27.8%, 11.66% and 29.85%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, central obesity, alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-ALD, diabetes and metabolic syndrome was higher in serum lipid abnormality groups than in the non-dyslipidemia group (p < 0.001). In a binary logistic regression, hyperlipidemia was positively correlated with age, male, hypertension, high body mass index, etc. There were negative correlations with being female and the level of education a subject had attained. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for premature coronary artery diseases and an important public health issue in the northeastern part of China. Dyslipidemia is more frequent than expected based on previous studies. To control dyslipidemia, routine evaluations in clinics and community centers are needed, as well as effective public health education.