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The paper examines the demographic situation in contemporary Czech society and its roots in the past. In the late 20th century there are two key development trends. Demographic model originated in 1950s (characterised by high fertility rates, high marriage rates (95%), high divorce rates (40%), low marriage age and so on) was left after the decline of socialism and the revival of original interwar model has occured since early 1990s. The second trend is approximating to the model of reproduction usual in Western Europe. This new ways of reproduction are characterised by postponing the marriage and parenthood, so called informal partnerships or unmarried (consensual) couples are becoming more frequent which also results in a growing number of birth of extra-marital children. The increase of divorce rates occurs and hence both number of incomplete families and of households including just one individual constantly grow. The improved medical care and healthier regime have led to longer life expectancies over the last fifteen years. The infant mortality figures has further improved. The authoress concludes that population development significantly influences current economic, health, legal, environmental and political conditions which create together a social environment where the demographic development occurs. (
The article analyses data obtained from anonymous excerpts of records from the parish registers for the historical centre of Prague. It was found that the city's growth was fed primarily by immigration, as the high mortality rates hindered growth by natural increase. The level of infant and child mortality observed was on the whole higher than what was found in other locations in the Czech lands. Even in Prague in the 17th and 18th centuries features of the 'urban' reproductive regime were discovered: low nuptiality, a low fertility rate, and conversely a high mortality rate. A specific feature was the structural changes in fertility toward the end of the 18th century, with an unprecedented increase in the number of children born to unmarried mothers (mostly of whom were originally from outside Prague). The stagnation of population growth in Prague at the end of the Thirty Years War continued into the 1660-70s and the population only began growing again in the 1680s. This positive development was interrupted in the 1730s and then especially during the wars in the middle of the 18th century, but toward the end of the 18th century the pace of population growth began to accelerate.
An analysis of health promoting behaviors in the Czech adult population - sporting (n = 272) and non-sporting (n = 128) - and a comparison with German (n = 400) and Russian (n = 400) adults is presented in this article. In the investigation a questionnaire was employed called 'Sport, Health and Body Concepts in Central and Eastern Europe' which included mostly closed questions requiring answers on a Lickert type scale. Sporting adults were found to be more satisfied with their personal well-being, their health and bodies, they suffer less from psychosomatic difficulties (restless sleep, headache, backache, digestion problems, easily feeling weary) and their attitudes to health were more mature (healthier way of living, more regular visits to the physician, smoking less often, greater care of health, better condition and appearance).
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