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Study of meadow grass biology were started already in the thirties. After the second world war number and range such kind of studies had increased systematically and their methodology had been improved. The studies were carried out in the control conditions and as field experiments, in pure stands and in mixtures, in specialist as well as in practical experiments. The results obtained have allowed to explain many occurrences which took place in the applied studies and they affected improvement of rational management of grassland and helped in valorisation and characterisation many of grass species. Continuation of grass biology studies is necessary but in complex way and in co-operation with different branches of basic sciences using modern equipment and unify methods of studies.
Content available Nasiennictwo traw dla rekultywacji terenow trudnych.
On the basis of turf cultivars testing in few regions of Poland during 1991-98 and literature studies, the ranking of specics tolerant to common stress conditions was presented. As an example of Poa pratensis cultivars it has been demonstrated relationship of turf quality (OA) under different type of maintenance: extensive (Park and Eko), medium intensive (Relax) and extensive (Sport) and seed yielding character. In other test it has been shown efficiency of resistance to stresses of Festuca rubra, endophyte-containing cultivar. The group of species were proposed to following stresses: drought, high moisture, wearing, low cutting, shade, toxicity of soil and severe winter. It was shown seed production of grass species in Poland and European Union with taking into consideration the species of minor agriculture meaning. Cultivars tests showed high correlation the turf quality between Relax, Park and Eko maintenance (r = 0.73, r = 0.90) and low correlation coefficients between Sport maintenance (r = -0.19, r = 0.22). The cultivars differed significantly in height of plants (max. to 260%) and seed yielding (max. to 270%). It was confirmed that seed infection by Acremonium can improve some stress resistance of cultivar, but these effect in average value OA was not so big.
The aim of the analysis conducted on the street lawns in Warsaw was to specify the share of grasses in the sward. Floristic research was conducted by means of phytosociological record method according to the Braun-Blanquet's school and it analysed plant cover. Furthermore, the research compares grasses share in sward depended on soil salinity. According to research from 1999-2001 the street lawns comprised of 80 species, out of which 16 were grass species. External belts of street lawn sward comprised of 55 plant species, with 12 grass taxa. Internal belts of street lawns comprised of 61 plant species, out of which 14 were grass species. The percentage of plants in middle belts of the street lawns reached 96% of plant cover and in side belts - about 70% of the plant cover. External belts of street lawns comprised from 24 to 33 dicotyledonous plants and 3 to 9 grass species. Grass species constituted 21.0-38.6% of street lawn's plant cover. The electrolitic conductivity reached from 0.8 to 1.2 mS cm⁻¹. Research compared individual species' share in lawn sward and it showed that, among grass species, Agropyron repens, Setaria pumila, Puccinellia distans, Festuca rubra and Bromus hordeaceus have the highest indices of plant cover. Internal belts of street lawns comprised from 20 to 29 dicotyledonous plants and 6 to 10 grass species. Grass species constituted 26.8-40.4% of street lawns' plant cover. The electrolitic conductivity reached from 0.3 to 0.45 mS cm⁻¹. Research compared individual species' share in lawn sward and it showed that, among grass species, Festuca rubra, Lolium perenne, Agropyron repen, Bromus hordeaceus and Dactylis glomerata have the highest indices of plant cover.
The actual status of seed production of lawn grasses in Poland has been presented. In the National Register till 1999, 27 native lawn grass cultivars were listed. The farmer's knowledge about lawn grass cultivation principles, as well as the area of lawn grass plantation are gradually increasing in Poland. The growing competition of lawn grass-seed producing firms from abroad sauced a threat for Polish breeding activity.
Na podstawie literatury i prac własnych scharakteryzowano przydatność wybranych gatunków i odmian traw jako komponentów do mieszanek na pastwiska trwale i przemienne. Wyróżniono pod względem wczesności trzy grupy gatunków i odmian: wczesne, średniowczesne i późne. Opracowano skład 15 mieszanek: 9 na pastwiska trwałe i 6 na przemienne.
Basing on the respective literature and own works of the authors suitability of the selected grass species and varieties as components for mixture for permanent pastures and leys are characteried. Three groups of species and arieties were distiquished with regard to the earliness, viz.: early, medium aerly and late ones. Composition for 15 moxtures: 9 for permanet pastures and 6 for leys has been worked out.
На осховании литературы и собственных работ автор характепизуется пригодность выбранныx видов и сортов злаковых трав как компонентoв травосмесей на постоянные и переменные паст бища. В отношении частоты первого броста был выделены три группы видов и сортов: ранни средне-ранные и посдние. Разработали состав 1 травосмесей: 9 на постоянне пастбища и 6 н переменные.
Content available Dynamika wzrostu wybranych traw w rejonie gorskim
The investigations were conducted in 1994-1995 in the mountain area situated 650 m a.s.l. Dynamic of growth and development of two grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was compared with the indigenous wild growing Holcus mollis. Every year the experiments lasted for 8 weeks, which included the period of growth from the beginning of grass vegetation till their cutting maturity. The date of the vegetation start was determined in the studies and the height of plants was assessed every two weeks, and dry mass yields and daily increase of those yields were determined. Arrhenatherum elatius was the species, which started its vegetation at the earliest date and was characterised with the greatest growth dynamic while Holcus mollis was placed the last. The biggest growths of dry mass were detected at the shooting stage. It was on an average twice bigger than in the tillering and earing stages and even between 3 and 5 times bigger than in the period after earing. At the shooting stage daily increase in Arrhenatherum elatius yields were on an average twice bigger than for Dactylis glomerata and Holcus mollis.
Restoration of grassland sward is aimed mostly at improving their production and quality of obtained fodder. There are two legumes and three grasses species in deteriorated sward - preservation by means of reasonable management and fertilisation or with the aid of oversowing i.e. by introducing seeds of valuable grasses and legumes into existing sward. The oversowing experiments have been conducted on pasture in mountainous region site. Orchard grass appeared to be a species of highest production (28% of total) among grasses initially used and its rate has been increasing for consecutive years up to 50% of total in fifth year. The maximum proportion for white clover was 24% and for birdsfoot trefoil 18%. Both mineral fertilisation and oversowing appeared to improve production of pastures. Limited nitrogen fertilisation together with oversowing has resulted in its 25-33% rise. As regards undersowed pasture objects the best result was observed in the perennial ryegrass and white clover sward.
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