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The paper demonstrates Plato's efforts to emancipate reason from the influence of mythological tradition developed among others by 'myth-creative' mimetic art that plays at mass audience's heart strings (Plato's 'Ion' is watched by twenty-thousand strong audience). As a result, the sphere of affects were marginalized later on by Christianity. Shakespeare appears here as one of the first liberators of that affective sphere, and as a fighter for artists' dignity, especially theatre artists. Brecht appears as a representative of the next wave of emancipation, who, like Plato before him, tries to empower the public and make him a subject. The theme of an actor and the fight for his dignity is an example of development of the significance of individuality in Europe's history.
The name of Shakespeare appeared in Korea for the first time in January 1919, when Ku Ri-byong published his translation of The Tempest in The Catholic Youth magazine (Kidok Ch'ongnyon). During the next decade, the most significant works of Shakespeare were translated into Korean and published in newspapers and magazines. However, they were rarely staged. Hong Hae-song (1893-1957) was the first to face the challenge and in 1926 he directed The Merchant of Venice. The following years aroused interest in Shakespeare's dramas among Korean directors and Hamlet was the most often presented on the stage. O T'ae-sok (born in 1940) was one of the most outstanding inventors of the modern South-Korean theatre, who decided to show the romantic comedy Romeo and Juliet. O T'ae-sok debuted in 1967 and for more than forty years has constantly been surprising the Korean audience and critics with the variety of his stage ideas, diversity of innovative artistic means and an original technique of acting. Producing Romeo and Juliet for the first time in 1995, O T'ae-sok made a far-reaching adaptation not only in the interpretation of the play, but also in its literary layer. In 2001, O T'ae-sok decided to direct this work one more time. In effect, he created his own version of the play, in which he emphasised the specificity of Korean culture and his own aesthetic preferences. Although he kept the main plot of Shakespeare's work, he seriously reduced the number of dialogues, leaving only fragments of the most important and famous speeches. What is more, he simplified them to such an extent that they became only an echo of the florid style of the original. Additionally, he changed the characteristics of the main characters and their roles in the action. Finally, he used choreography to present numerous metaphors and psychological dilemmas.
Employing a comparative method, the present study explores the Renaissance expression of Jozef Ciller’s Shakespearean scenographies. Based on an analysis of preserved archival material (scenographic proposals, photographs from productions, video recordings, reviews, etc.) and personal communication with Jozef Ciller, the author examines how he transposed general features of European Renaissance (visual arts, architecture) into individual scenographic solutions. The author’s analysis also aims to identify how Ciller worked with the architecture and scenography of Elizabethan theatre Renaissance and observe his work with Renaissance elements depending on whether a scenography was meant for indoors or outdoors. The author concludes that Jozef Ciller employs Renaissance elements as motifs to preserve the awareness of man’s Renaissance spirit and greatness.
Individuality and ideality are the two principles according to which aesthetes yesterday and today interpret art. But individuality must have priority because the systems of ideality, established for instance by Winckelmann and Schiller, produce nothing but lifeless, abstract and uniform figures who represent a concept or the genus. Individuality, on the contrary, is an analogon to nature where everything has its end and sense in itself, and everything must be judged by itself. This is the difference between the figures and works of Shakespeare and those of the idealizing authors. Individuality, however, does not simply mean the imitation of nature; rather it means a well-balanced synthesis of the material and the spiritual in something characteristic. This renders the objection of ugliness invalid, too, because it only pertains to the sensual perception, that is the beginning of perception. Those identifying the beautiful with the ideal are also at risk of insisting on objects which in the course of time lose their novelty and power. The study by the Hungarian aesthete and literary critic Janos Erdelyi, written in 1847, is an important attempt to enforce the principle 'life as it is' in the philosophy of art.
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