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tom 94
The article discusses global cities - the economic, political and financial centres of the modern world. However, the author does not focus on the economic importance of global cities but on their socio-cultural uniqueness. In this perspective cities are perceived as the most advanced evolutionary form of urban organisms, which developed during post-industrial globalisation. The latter made modern global cities centres with free movement of people and migrations as their inalienable features. By reference to Ulf Hannerz' concept of transnational connections the author discusses four main social categories that make up global cities: representatives of international business, populations originating in the Third World, the people of culture and tourists. While describing all four of them, the author draws attention to the consequences that the presence of these groups have in the cultural, social and spatial dimensions.
The importance of countryside as a recreation area has risen according to the urbanization process which led to rising number of city population and worsening the quality of environment in the cities. In the countryside area there are many objects of individual recreation – cottages, recreation cottages, gardening houses. The primary goal of owning and making use of objects of individual recreation is the regeneration of physical and mental forces in a more suitable environment.
After the end of the Second World War an extensive movement of certain groups of the population began in the entire Central Europe. These evoke spontaneous efforts to find a new home and life, but also a wide implementation of compulsory and forced migration as a tool of the Czechoslovak residential policy. A part of it was also the unprecedented migration of Gypsies to which the Czech organisations reacted mainly negatively; as a result of the previous anti-Gypsy arrangements. The continuation of attitudes toward this culturally different and undesirable minority is in this instance undeniable. The spontaneous and purposeful migration waves of Gypsy immigrants from Slovakia, linked to a 'rushed system-less urbanisation' (N. Pavelcikova). The lack of provisions in terms of accommodation and labour opportunities resulted in problems and consequences with which, according to Czech authors, not only the Gypsy minority, but also the entire society is still struggling.
Throughout the last half-century of studies of the Roman North Africa, it has become an established notion in science that the reign of the Flavian dynasty was a decisive turning point in its history, and rightly so. This breakthrough embraced all areas of life, while the nature of the transformation is best reflected by the view that it was only thanks to the Flavians that Africa became fully Roman. What is more, this is accompanied by the well-founded thesis that without the achievements of the Flavians, the great prosperity of the Flavian provinces in the 2nd-3rd centuries would not have been possible: their successors reaped what the Flavians had sowed. Without going into too much detail, one should also recognise the rationality of the postulate to set apart the Flavian period in the history of Roman Africa as an era in its own right.  Embarking on the great task of urbanisation in Africa was the Flavii’s undoubted merit. Their principal effort of was concentrated in the northern part of Africa Proconsularis, on the territory of the former Africa Vetus.  Lepcis Magna in the south of Proconsularis (in Tripolitania) and Icosium in Mauretania Caesariensis were exceptional cases. The newly created cities – colonies and municipia – were to perform an important strategic role, i.e. to protect the territories of Africa Proconsularis against the tribes from the south. The area was urbanised, had considerable economic significance and yielded high profit. Both extensive private latifundia and imperial domains which were to be found there, played an important role in supplying Rome with grain. From the point of view of the state, the changes also contributed to the internal consolidation of the province.   Urbanisation of Africa, besides the introduction of cadastre, institutional forms of imperial cult and forcing nomadic tribes to settled life served that very end.  This involved strictly military reorganisation of the province, which was best manifested in the relocation of the Legio III Augusta to Theveste and then to Lambaesis. The Flavians also embarked on expansion and repairs of the road network. Apart from their important economic and political functions, coloniae veteranorum – Ammaedara and Madauros – as well as the municipia Sufetula and Cillium had the task of guarding the access to the fertile lands of Africa Proconsularis. There is no doubt that the policy of the Flavians was a long-term one, while the actions of Trajan, Hadrian and the Severans represented its direct continuation.
The Croatian Community in New Zealand has a unique history. It is about 150 years old, its earliest arrivals were mainly young men from the Dalmatian coast of whom almost all worked as kauri gum diggers before moving into farming, and then into viticulture, fisheries and orchard business. Before large-scale urbanisation in the 1930s they lived in the north of New Zealand where there was also considerable contact with the local Maori population. The arrival of ever more women from Dalmatia, urbanisation and with it the establishment of voluntary associations, an improved knowledge of English, the language of the host society and, above all, economic betterment led to ever greater integration. After World War II migrants from areas of former Yugoslavia other than Croatia started to arrive in bigger numbers. Nowadays Croat people can be found in all spheres of New Zealand society and life, including in the arts, literature and sports. But the history of the Croats in New Zealand is also characterised by its links with the 'Old Country' whose political and social events, the latest in the 1990s, have always had a profound influence on the New Zealand Croatian community.
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