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PL
W opracowaniu przedstawiono możliwość kredytowania przedsiębiorstw rolniczych na Ukrainie, głównie przez banki komercyjne. Zbadano rożne aspekty kredytowania rolniczego w kraju w warunkach przekształceń rynkowych.
EN
The analysis of agrarian enterprises financial and crediting situation in Ukraine is fulfilled in retrospective review. The main qualitative characteristics of the commercial banks crediting of agrarian enterprises and preferential crediting need are shown. The conclusions about main problems in agribusiness' financing including its state support are summed up.
PL
Teoria chaosu stanowi nie tylko nowy paradygmat w nauce, ale także inspirację do badań filozoficznych nad rzeczywistością. Szczególnie interesujące w tym kontekście wydają się niektóre konsekwencje teorii chaosu w odniesieniu do tradycyjnych stanowisk ontologicznych, jak monizm, indeterminizm czy ewolucjonizm. Teoria ta wpływa także znacząco na dwudziestowieczny spór o redukcjonizm, wypowiadając się po stronie redukcjonizmu ontologicznego i dostarczając nowych argumentów przeciwko redukcjonizmowi metodologicznemu i epistemologicznemu.
EN
Theory of Chaos is not only a new paradigm of science but also inspires philosophical consideration on reality. The most interesting in this context issues are same consequences of theory of chaos like monism, indeterminism or evolutionism. This theory has also significant influence on reductionism's dispute opting for ontological reductionism (materialism) and supplying new arguments against methodological reductionism and epistemological one.
EN
The authors define direct selling to describe moral problems confronted by people engaged in this kind of business sale. The listing of moral problems reflects the relationship between transaction parties.
EN
The authors discuss in the article a common concept that the Balanced Scorecard method of strategy managing of a company is applicable usually in Bigger Enterprises not in Small and Medium management. To achieve so, in the first part of their article, the authors will indicate difficulties in implementing BSC just in bigger companies in aspects: costs, time-consuming, extraordinary effort in organisation, new look on stepping down communication, long distance thinking, scepticism of financiers and resistance in organisation. In the second part of their article the authors observe the possibilities of introducing BSC to medium and small companies where it could be: less costs, last shorter, be easier communicated among employees, inflict less resistance of organisation.
EN
In the article the authors present a preliminary concept of building an Expert System in the Internet as far as moral knowledge is concerned, called Moral Knowledge Expert System. The idea is to apply the faculties of the worldwide Internet web as well as the concepts being developed in knowledge management with regards to moral problems present in economy. The system would include expert knowledge, acquisition of knowledge about actual moral choices and their consequences, and categorising and data processing in the knowledge database - an element of expert system. As a result, the system would enable a user to learn about consequences of moral choices before making them. The basic human freedom of choice would stay not interfered with due to such a polarization of the system so as not to force a choice but give material to be considered only.
EN
The aim of the authors is to present a preliminary idea of creation of an Internet-Based Expert System in the field of moral knowledge, to be referred to as a Moral Knowledge Base. The idea consists in an attempt to use the capacity of the World Wide Web and ideas developed under the concepts of knowledge management to solving moral problems that emerge in business life. The system in question would embrace expert knowledge, acquisition of knowledge about actually made moral choices and their consequences, and categorisation/processing of information within the base of knowledge as an element of the expert system. At the input, the system would make it possible to people faced with moral choices 'to consult it' on consequences of those. The basic human freedom of choice would thus remain intact thanks to polarisation of the system that would not impose the choice upon the user, but would provide him/her with material to be considered instead.
PL
Przedmiot badań ekonomicznych, jako system złożony, podlega modelowaniu. Etapy dekompozycji i jakościowego opisu modelowanego systemu, w tym systemu gospodarczego, są nieodzowne w prawidłowym prowadzeniu badań naukowych. Z drugiej strony modelowanie w ekonomii nie powinno być pozbawione matematycznego języka opisu, ponieważ konstruując model wyjaśniający, należy posługiwać się zarówno modelem opisowym, jak i sformalizowanym. Tak zbudowany model wyjaśniający może stanowić bazę prognozowania dla wysnuwania testowalnych prognoz. W ten sposób badania naukowe, wychodząc od rzeczywistości, powracają do niej ponownie i cykl tworzenia teorii naukowej się zamyka.
EN
The paper discusses various modeling platforms that can be applied to describe complex systems embedded in economics, as well as the role of modeling in the context of three main functions of scientific research: description, explanation and prediction. Qualitative modeling (non-quantitative) is characterized as an initial stage of any modeling approaches, including the one represented by econometrics. The requirement to begin modeling process from non-quantitative perspective represents the vital precondition to satisfy the "isomorphism" function of modeling in relation to real live systems being modeled. Qualitative as well as quantitative description models create the foundation for explanatory model s development. These, in turn, can be used for prediction purposes satisfying the third main scientific function of research.
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