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1
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DE
The influence of English on German has grown in the last decades and is likely to continue. The aim of this paper is to investigate the occurrence of Anglicisms in the travel magazine Lonely Planet Traveller Deutschland (October, 2014). The particular focus is on the parts of speech and word formation types they represent. First we make an attempt to define the terms loanword and Anglicism. In the second part we present and discuss the results of our corpus linguistic study. The findings of the study show the dominance of nouns in the analysed Anglicisms (especially hybrid nominal compounds). The research can be of significance for further studies on the language of tourism industry.
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Content available Rosyjskie zapożyczenia w języku niemieckim
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EN
The article attempts to present the impact of the co-existence of the Slavic and Germanic world on the formation of Slavic loanwords in German. The study focuses chiefly on the Russian loanwords in German. It presents and describes cultural, historical, political, and economic reasons for the transfer of the lexical elements of Russian origin to German. The aforementioned factors include: the impact of the hanseatic trade, political alliances, and conflicts. The work refers to loanwords of Russian origin that entered German throughout the ages. The article provides examples of words that describe typical Russian phenomena (e.g. Tundra), which counterparts had not existed in German before.
3
Content available remote El léxico de origen hebreo en el judeoespañol contemporáneo
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EN
The presence of a visible Hebrew component is one of the defining traits of the so-called “Jewish languages”. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to determine the scope of use of Hebrew-derived lexicon in contemporary Judeo-Spanish in its written variant. Our study will be based on the Sephardic press published mainly in Turkey and Israel.
EN
Richard Rolle’s Psalter rendition, as any of the medieval English Psalter translations, is thickly enveloped in a set of assertions, originating in the nineteenth century, whose validity has been accepted unquestioned. It is the purpose of the present paper to investigate one such claim concerning the vocabulary selection, according to which Rolle’s rendition would employ almost exclusively lexical items of native origin, except for the instances where no proper item with native etymology presents itself in a particular context and Rolle is forced to use a Latin-derived word. The assertion generates at least two problematic issues. Firstly, it identifies Rolle’s translation as most exceptional in relation to the remaining 14th-century English Psalter translations: the Wycliffite Bibles and the Middle English Glossed Prose Psalter of which the former are asserted to be overtly influenced by the Latin text they render and the latter deeply indebted both syntactically and, more importantly, lexically to a ‘French source’. Secondly, it ascribes Richard Rolle the ideas nowadays covered by the term linguistic purism. Therefore, it seems necessary to analyse the lexical layer of the text in search of evidence, or lack thereof, which sets Rolle’s translation lexically apart from other renditions and sheds some light on the issue of Rolle’s supposed linguistic purism. Such a study is conducted on the basis of the nominal layer of the first fifty Psalms of the four relevant texts analysed in relation to their common Latin source text as only the juxtaposition of all of these enables one to (dis)prove the claim cited above. To provide a wider context from which to view them, the findings will be presented in relation to an overview of the contemporary theory of translation and set against a broadly sketched linguistic map of contemporary England.
EN
This article presents German loanwords in the Polish language. Its aim is twofold: to discuss words of German origin in Polish, as well as to stress Polish-German language contacts and their influences on vocabulary (a significant number of German loanwords refer to the building industry). The analysis will not only deal with the meaning and etymology of particular words, but will also scrutinize their description in the dictionaries of Polish edited by Doroszewski and Sobol.
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Content available remote Gli anglicismi ai tempi della pandemia: necessità o esagerazione?
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EN
In the difficult time of the coronavirus pandemic, there has been an invasion of Anglicisms in the vocabulary of the Italian language aiming to describe the new reality. The brevity and the conciseness of English words prevailed over native Italian words, taking linguists by surprise. If in some situations the richness of the Italian vocabulary imposed the native word to the detriment of the English loanword, in other cases the latter was preferred. If the main vector that imposes the neologism is as a rule the speakers‟ use, in this case the Anglicisms were imposed by mass media repetitiveness, which had as a result a mass diffusion in a fairly short period of time. Accounting for Anglicisms invading the Italian vocabulary during the pandemic is also the fact that English has come to be viewed the supreme lingua franca in the field of scientific research.
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Content available Words Mean. Words Look. Words Sell (Themselves)
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EN
An article entitled Words Mean. Words Look. Words Sell (Themselves) focuses on three issues: dominance of the use of English loanwords over attempts to create their Polish equivalents (as a result of which a product, a process, an event, or an artefact promoted by the English-speaking culture is adopted together with its name), a trend whereby words (and titles composed of words) become images (through a choice of font, a non-standard use of lowercase and uppercase letters, or an inclusion of non-letter characters, e.g. parentheses), and ascribing to words present in micro-acts a promotional function, advertising the entire product – a text. The trends discussed in the article are not new, but it is their intensity level that is new.
EN
This article presents Slavic loanwords in the Austrian variant of the German language. Its aim is twofold: it discusses words of Polish, Slovakian, Czech, Serbo­-Croatian, and Slovenian origin in the Austrian variant of German, as well as stressing the multicultural history of Austria and its influence on vocabulary (a significant number of Slavic loanwords refer to culinary lexis denoting the names of Slavic meals). The analysis will not only deal with the meaning and etymology of particular words, but will also scrutinize their description in the “Duden” dictionaries: “Deutsches Universalwörterbuch” and “Duden. Wie sagt man in Österreich?”.
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EN
The article is devoted to the linguistics interests of Józef Ignacy Kraszewki who views language as a complex lexical, syntactic and semantic structure rather than merely the matter used for creating a literary vision of the world. The subjects of the detailed analysis are the journalistic and quasi-linguistic texts published in Studia literackie (Literary studies) and Nowe studia literackie (New literary studies) which discuss the relics of the Polish language’s past and the development of its vocabulary, with particular focus on the status of loanwords, neologisms and archaisms from various stages of the development of the Polish language. The image that emerges from the analysed texts is one of a writer-linguist who perfectly understands the mechanisms that rule language and who shows that language is dynamic and changes due to the needs of its users and all possible external factors.
EN
The aim of this anthology is to publish the texts of postgraduate students from Slovakia, Poland and the Czech Republic. The publication series contains articles from different topic areas, that are closely associated with German language. Each article is composed of theoretical and empirical part. You can find here the studies of literature, of linguistics and of didactics.
EN
The influx of neologisms associated with the coronavirus pandemic demonstrates the natural need to expand the lexicon with new words when the language community is confronted with a new reality. Neological adoptions (the word lockdown in Czech) and semantic neologisms (the extension of the English word lockdown with a new meaning) thus directly reflect the adaptation to a new reality at the linguistic level. In my article relying primarily on empirical data from monitoring corpora of Czech and English, I focus mainly on the process of adapting the individual loanword into the Czech lexical system, successively on the conceptual, formal, morphological, word-forming, and syntactic level. The unproblematic integration of the word into the Czech environment, crowned by its inclusion in the emerging monolingual dictionary of Czech, may also testify to the state of the Czech language in today’s global world.
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Content available remote Puzzle jako ortoepický problém
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EN
The article focuses on the pronunciation of the loanword puzzle, which can be realized through multiple variants in Czech. The research, based on material from public media files, tries to reveal possible connections between the pronunciation, meaning and morphological characteristics of this word. The main aim is to find out which pronounced variant can be regarded as orthoepic, and, based on the findings, to propose an adjustment to the keyword puzzle in the Czech Internet Language Reference Book.
14
Content available remote Kombinace konsonantu s vokálem v českých slovech cizího původu:
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EN
Analyzing a corpus of over 36,000 words of foreign origin and 33,000 native words, the paper presents a detailed account and comparison of the distribution of consonant-vowel combinations in Czech. These combinations are discussed according to their vowel class. Both combinations typical for foreign-origin words and combinations typical for native words were found. In some cases, the typicality is predictable from the phonemes in the combinations (i.e. from the phonemes typical for either type of vocabulary), but there are many combination types for which this is not possible. The paper concludes with a discussion of the factors that may influence the distribution of consonant-vowel combinations, including sound changes, phoneme frequency, morphological processes, and universal preferences in the combinability of consonants with vowels. Special attention is paid to loanwords from English.
EN
A detailed examination of the materials of Ukrainian sports periodicals at the end of the XIXth and the beginning of the 20th century and special editions of that time dedicated to football gives us the opportunity to trace the development of Ukrainian football vocabulary in the Eastern Halychyna of that period. Analysis of different thematic groups of football vocabulary at its initial but very intensive stage of its formation showed that in terminological football vocabulary borrowing football names was practiced, and correlation between national and foreign components was in favour of the former. It is remarkable that here and there loanwords had a few Ukrainian equivalents each, which was typical for the period of formation of national terminological systems — functioning of synonymic terms, sometimes extensive synonymic rows of special names denoting the same notion.
PL
Artykuł stanowi podsumowanie badań nad rozwojem ukraińskiego słownictwa piłkarskiego w Galicji Wschodniej na przełomie XIX i XX wieku. Badanie zostało przeprowadzone na korpusie tekstów pochodzących z ukraińskich czasopism sportowych oraz publikacji specjalistycznych poświęconych tematyce futbolowej, wydawanych od końca XIX do lat trzydziestych XX wieku. Analiza różnych grup tematycznych leksyki piłkarskiej z okresu jej początkowego, a zarazem intensywnego rozwoju wykazała, że wśród terminoleksyki piłki nożnej funkcjonowały jednocześnie nazwy rodzime i zapożyczone. Z badania wynika również, że wzajemny stosunek składników ukraińskich i obcojęzycznych rysował się na korzyść tych pierwszych. Ponadto na podstawie badanych artykułów prasowych odnotowano, że autorzy tekstów czasami wysuwali propozycje stosowania ukraińskich odpowiedników nazw zapożyczonych. Takie zachowanie językowe było typowym zjawiskiem w czasie kształtowania się ukraińskich systemów terminologicznych i przejawiało się między innymi funkcjonowaniem bliskoznacznych terminów, czasem długich synonimicznych szeregów nazw specjalnych, dla oznaczania tego samego pojęcia.
EN
The article attempts to present the impact of the co-existence of the Slavic and Germanic world on the formation of Slavic loanwords in German. The study focuses chiefly on the Russian loanwords in German. It presents and describes the cultural, historical, political, and economic reasons for the transfer of lexical elements of Russian origin to German. The aforementioned factors include: the impact of the Hanseatic trade, political alliances, and conflicts. The work refers to loanwords of Russian origin that have entered German throughout the ages. The article provides examples of words that describe typically Russian phenomena (e.g. Tundra), whose counterparts had not existed in German before.
EN
The article addresses the question of words ending in -ing whose frequency in the French language gradually increased in the 20th century, attracting the attention of several linguists. However, no study has been done of the words in -ing as part of a metalinguistic corpus, the dictionary Le Petit Robert. A general presentation of the phenomenon from the theoretical point of view and a definition of the analysed phenomenon are followed by an analysis of the word corpus created with reference to lexemes approved in the general French language dictionary Le Petit Robert (version 2016). The analysis concerns the problems of morphology, orthography, and introduction of the lexemes into the dictionary in question. Other issues examined include the problems of the -ing ending pronunciation, equivalents, false Anglicisms and official recommendations from the dictionary authors for replacement of certain words.
FR
L’objectif de cette étude est d’analyser les mots qui se terminent par le suffixe -ing. Une présentation générale du phénomène en question et sa définition sont suivies par une analyse d’un corpus formé par des lexèmes approuvés dans le dictionnaire français de langue générale le Petit Robert (version publiée en 2016). L’analyse porte sur des questions concernant la morphologie, l’orthographe, l’introduction des lexèmes dans le dictionnaire, la prononciation. L’article aborde également la problématique des faux anglicismes, des équivalents et des recommandations officielles des auteurs du dictionnaire.
FR
Les deux mots d’origine française démontrent, en polonais d’aujourd’hui, un sens nouveau, éloigné de celui qui leur était propre au moment du passage en polonais (début du XIXe pour cotillon et début du XXe pour buvard). L’article a pour but de présenter, à travers l’histoire des deux mots, en polonais et en français, l’histoire de leurs référents. L’évolution sémantique de biuwar et de kotylion permet de saisir le changement dans l’emploi des deux mots, conditionné par la réalité extralinguistique. On montre aussi les rapports entre l’usage français et l’appropriation des étymons par l’emprunt par la langue polonaise. L’exemplification, une de plus, du phénomène de “faux amis” est alors donnée.
EN
The two words of French origin: biuwar (‘tissue paper’, since the beginning of the 20th century; fr. buvard) and kotylion (‘cotillion’, since the beginning of 19th century; fr. cotillion) have a different meaning in Polish than in the language they were borrowed from. The paper presents the history of the two words in French and in Polish as well as the history of their referents. Semantic evolution of the words biuwar and kotylion allows capturing a change in their use, subject to extralinguistic conditions. Relationships with the use of the words in French and references to French etymons in Polish are also indicated. The history of the two words in Polish is yet another example of a well-known phenomenon of “faux-amis”.
EN
Германские заимствования в праславянском языке были всесторонне проанализированы как западными, так и восточными учеными, однако проблема заимствований в обратном направлении получила гораздо меньше внимания, особенно среди западных ученых. Стоит отметить, что Виктор Мартынов (1963) предложил 40 заимствований и проникновений из праславянского языка в прагерманский. Среди них девять, которые считаются заимствованиями в противоположном направлении в новейшей монографии по теме авторства Саскии Пронк-Титхофф (2013). Все они включены в составленный ей список вероятных германских заимствований в праславянском языке. Цель настоящей статьи – обзор и сопоставление взглядов лингвистов на этимологию этих слов (*bljudo, *kupiti, *lěkъ, *lugъ, *lukъ, *plugъ, *pъlkъ, *skotъ, *tynъ). Авторы учитывают анализы, проведенные не только Саскией Пронк-Титхофф и Виктором Мартыновым, но и Валентином Кипарским (1934) и Збигневом Голомбом (1992). Делается попытка определить, какие из девяти слов на самом деле можно с уверенностью считать заимствованиями из германских языков в праславянский, а также какие слова могли быть заимствованы в противоположном направлении.
20
Content available remote Abundance, conflict and insufficiency in loan terminology
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EN
The paper addresses problematic issues within linguistic borrowing terminology, which is often used inconsistently in language contact studies, and though abundant, it appears insufficient, as the latest research shows. The challenges a present-day language contact researcher faces are related to terminological imprecision, ambiguity, and the overlapping and overlaying of loan terms exploited in the description of language contact outcomes. Terminological discrepancies are multifactorial and have been caused, among others, by multilingualism of research, lack of terminological equivalence both within monolingual and multilingual settings, and the multiplicity of conceptual frameworks and research methods. Yet, despite loan terminology richness, some of the newly-appearing loan developments, induced by intensive language contact and speakers’ creativity, cannot be squeezed into the available typologies. An illustration of the abundance, conflict and insufficiency in loan terminology is based on European, American and Asian studies on linguistic borrowing published over the last century.
PL
Artykuł omawia zagadnienia problematyczne w obrębie terminologii zapożyczeń językowych, która bywa stosowana niekonsekwentnie, i choć zasobna, to, jak pokazują najnowsze badania, jest niewystarczająca do opisu wszystkich wytworów językowych powodowanych wpływem obcym. Wyzwaniem dla współczesnego językoznawcy kontaktu są niejednoznaczność i brak precyzji terminologicznej, jak też zazębianie i nawarstwianie się terminów. Rozbieżności terminologiczne mają podłoże wieloczynnikowe i powodowane są, między innymi, wielojęzycznością badań, brakiem terminologicznej ekwiwalencji międzyjęzykowej, jak i w obrębie jednego języka, mnogością ujęć teoretycznych i metodologii. Pomimo bogactwa terminologii zapożyczeniowej, niektóre nowe formy językowe powodowane wpływem obcym i kreatywnością użytkowników języka nie dają się ująć w dostępne typologie. Podstawą ilustracji zasobności, konfliktu i niedostatku terminologicznego w obrębie zapożyczeń są prace europejskie, amerykańskie i azjatyckie na temat zapożyczeń językowych, opublikowane na przestrzeni ostatnich stu lat.
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