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The paper gives an analytical description of the ideology of the Slavonic spirit as an essence of a culture. The principles of this ideology, from which a pretension on historical mission has been derived, was articulated by Russian Slavophils. In his writing 'Slavism and the world of future' Ludovit Stúr outlines this ideology to the Central-European Slavs as well as to justify the need of adopting pan-Russian Slavism. His vocabulary and style are marked by the political romanticism, while his conceptual map embodies dichotomies such as West/East, we/the others, religion/secularism. He finds the West to be in the state of the political and the moral decline, while the East (the Russian Slavism) is seen by him as the ground of a new civilization. The back-ground of this way of thinking is his conservative utopism.
Content available remote Historical-geographical aspects of duality in Europe
The article is based on the hypothesis that Europe has been historically and permanently “divided” into two parts. Four historical-geographical aspects of this duality are distinguished: cultural, economicsocial, political, and ethnic. To examine and džine duality, specific indicators are used. Duality is underwood as a complex and dynamic phenomenon that changes over the time. Conclusions summarize briefly the historical synthesis.
The study compares identities of the Ukrainian and Slovak ethnicities; they both contribute with their respective uniqueness to Europe – in a certain sense – as a supranational community as well as to Europe consisting of differences and regional connotations. The existence of both ethnicities in a historical sense is primarily related to the European macro-regions of East and West. In this context, Christianity fulfilled important cultural and civilizational functions; it determined people’s educational levels, morals, customs, etc. In this sense, the Ukrainian ethnicity archetypically identified with the Orthodox Christianity. The principle of caesaropapism, the superiority of the political power compared to the ecclesiastical power, as well as the principle of Catholicity brought into the nation’s “mentality” the elements of collectivism, communalism, obedience, respect toward authority, and heteronomous religious morals, which were later transformed to secular morals, i.e. party and state orders / bans. The Slovakians living in the Roman-Catholic / Evangelical Christianity partially acquired the cultural and civilizational heritage of the West. By separating the secular and ecclesiastical powers, the West enabled the rise of individualism, liberty, nation states, and human and civil rights; however, one cannot overlook Slovakia’s geographic position within Middle Europe, and therefore the backwardness of its society. Both Slovakian and Ukrainian ethnicities, and more precisely, their elites led the national emancipatory processes in multi-ethnic empires (Russia and the Habsburg Monarchy) with a single state nation; they had been confronted with the issue of the linguistic nationalism.
In his study, the author searches for the causes of polarized tension in our perception of the paired terms - East and West. He seeks reasons behind this acute dichotomy and points out the sources and manifestations of the so-called Orientalism and its specific form - Balkanism. Methodological blunders prevent us from reaching more deeply into the processes that are under way in two great Himalayan powers. China, which is no longer merely a developing country, has experienced a fourth decade of steady real economic growth. India has recently undergone massive changes, too.
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