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EN
Crude oil and natural gas, as energy carriers forming the basis of European Union countries energy mix, are nowadays at the heart of policy measurements aiming at lowering their consumption with respect to environmental and security threats associated with them. In this article we used Granger causality test in order to examine whether there exists the possibility of negative consequence related to the implementation of such policy for economic development of the EU countries. Based on results we conclude the persistence of continuing existence of environmental risks in relation to restarting economic growth. The absence of more significant influence of oil and gas consumption on economic growth can be perceived positively.
EN
This paper examines “revealed” comparative advantage (RCA) and international trade specialisation in the EU and USA as comparative analysis between the mentioned trade partners. In the midst of preparations for the potential Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) it is necessary to examine the sectoral competitiveness of EU in relation with its trade partner – the USA. For this aim, in our analysis we have used Balassa´s index of RCA and other alternative measures of comparative advantage as well as empirical analysis for identifying the comparative advantage trend. According to our empirical analyses we found that, while, based on Balassa’s RCA index, the EU-28 has reached a comparative advantage in smaller group of 2-digits SITC commodities (32 out of 66) than the USA (40 out of 66), based on the other alternative measures and econometric analyses, the EU has not only reached a comparative advantage in more industries, but also a more stable trend of international specialisation than the USA during the examined period.
EN
The paper examines driving forces of CO2 emissions of four sectors of the Slovak economy. Our analysis was based on extended Kaya Identity framework using Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) decomposition technique. We applied chaining analysis for period 1997 – 2012 and examined contributions of six effects. We found the primary mover of CO2 emissions to be energy intensity effect (52%) followed by activity effect 25%) and economy structure effect (16%). The combined contribution of energy mix effect, emission factors effect and population effect reached only approximately 7%, which implies that as much as 93 % CO2 emissions were determined to large extent by exogenous impetuses. Our evidence therefore suggests that the policies aimed at structural changes of economies are the most effective tool to address issue of CO2 emissions.
EN
This paper deals with the development of the crude oil and natural gas market in the world and especially in the EU. The analysis of the mentioned energy commodities are based on time serious statistical data and legislative documents and treaties adjusting the energy market. In this paper we analyze how the natural gas and crude oil as the two energy sources that are on the one hand most important in the energy mix and on the other hand least available within the very territory of EU itself therefore meaning the largest threat to the energy security of EU countries. We focus on analyzing of development of the worlds crude oil and natural gas development as the economic environment developed during last 20 year. Then we characterize what has EU done as the reaction on this development and finally we analyze the impact on EU in terms of supply and demand for natural gas and crude oil in first decade of 21st century. We found that, in 2009, the 66 % of EU natural gas imports were from four countries (Russia, Algeria, Norway and Nigeria) and the EU crude oil imports reached about 87 %.
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