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The author examines Jan Patocka's claim that T. G. Masaryk's national philosophy proved a failure. National philosophy here means a conception of history's intelligibility and of the place of a national community in it. Masaryk presupposed a morally ordered history gradually realising the ideals of humanity. He guided Czechoslovakia accordingly and, according to Patocka, left it unprepared for the wars of the 20th c. Yet Patocka's conception, though sustaining individual defiance, offers little guidance for a community. Thus neither can be considered simply a failure. One was successful as a programme, the other as a consolation, but neither can serve adequately in an age whose ultimate metaphysical problem concerns the relation of humankind to the world of all life.
Patocka's approach to Masaryk's philosophy of history grew out of his own conception of that philosophical discipline. Patocka took the philosophy of history to be a serious philosophical problem. It was for him, on one hand, the problem of the historicity of man from the objective point of view, while on the other hand it was the problem of the categorical understanding of history from the point of view of subjectivity and thought. According to Patocka, it is necessary to take a critical approach to classical conceptions which worked with metaphysics of history based on the linearity of the temporal, historical continuum; based on the rationality and objectivity of the meaningfulness of historical development; based on understanding of mankind as the subject of history; and based on the idea of historical progress. This does not necessarily mean we must completely discard these conceptions, but it does indicate a defining and restricting of their validity. Patocka's reflections on history are connected with his approach to the problem of the natural world. He is in debt here to Heidegger's concept of openness which, in Patocka's view, founds the life of history and without which history could not persist. It is precisely this openness, however, that brings with it the problematicity of human historical being - the permanent possibility of the collapse of the existing meaning of life. Patocka's reflections on history and historicity culminate in his 'Heretical Essays on the Philosophy of History'. His critical objections to Masaryk's conception of history are contained, above all, in the study 'The Attempt at a Czech National Philosophy and its Lack of Success'. Masaryk's conception of the continuity of Czech history had, for Patocka, an instrumental, nationalistic character. Patocka emphasizes the empirical discontinuity of Czech history. But it is where Masaryk meant to make a step towards a real national philosophy and to a truly radical revision of the existing philosophical tradition that, according to Patocka, he succumbed to an objectivistically and naturalistically-orientated Comtian philosophy of history. He arrived at an objective law of development as something eternal, as something which actually has nothing in common with freedom and responsibility, but which is even in contradiction to them. It is for this reason that Masaryk's attempt at a Czech national philosophy, as part of a general philosophy of history, was doomed to failure.
Content available remote T. G. Masaryk a politický katolicismus v období první ČSR (1918-1935)
Masaryk’s attitude to political Catholicism was slowly developing from 1918 to 1935. The Catholic political groups were mostly Czech (Czechoslovak People’s Party, CSL), Slovak (Hlinka’s Slovak People’s Party, HSLS), and German (German Christian Social People’s Party, DCV). Prior to 1918, Masaryk’s views of the Catholic political parties were rather negative, as he considered political Catholicism an inadmissible interference of the ecclesiastic world in the political arena. After the creation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 and during the 1920s, Masaryk’s negative attitude to those parties remained unchanged. In the 1930s, however, he modified a little his attitude to the Catholic Church and to political Catholicism. A great success was the Catholic Congress held in 1935 and openly supported by Masaryk. His attitude in the period of time under consideration was far from being homogeneous; it depended on the particular party or person, and showed also alterations in time. Apparent discontinuity can be seen in the views before and after 1918. Masaryk’s relation to particular representatives of the Catholic political camp can be also used to demonstrate his ability to balance the radical streams within the particular groups. However, Masaryk was personally far from considering the question of Catholic belief to be closed or finally resolved
The study is devoted to relations with Russia and Russophilia as a traditional komponent of Czech nationalist thinking. It summarizes the development of Czech sympathy for the Great War at home, in exile propaganda and among Russian Czechs and later legions. The analysis of the interwar disputes primarily between Masaryk and Edvard Beneš on the one hand, and Kramář on the other hand, concerning relations with the Russian Empire, wartime Russophilia and the problem of their image in interwar Czechoslovakia, which refers to the issue of the political legitimacy of the struggle between the Castle and the right and the existence of two parallel discourses, that of the Castle and that of the right, based on different premises and promoting a different view of the meaning and purpose of the nation-state.
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