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EN
Geographic area of the northern inner west-Carpathian foothills, that is almost identical with the territory of present-day Slovakia, was a part of the south-western border line of cultures of the corded complex at the turn of the older and younger periods of prehistory. In spite of the fact that in this area no distinct settlement structure belonging to any of the cultures of this group has been found up to now, the corded ornament has its phenomenal position here. The study, which is including also a palaeotechnological reconstruction, is investigating the corded ornament and its semantic, cognitive and philosophical aspects by the method of structured research. In addition to information about the creator himself, the ornament can bear also information about his community and contact communities as well. In the local west-Carpathian society, where the ornament was an element of different culture, the symbolic sign (wounded cords) could repeatedly demonstrate the creator's exclusivity within the sociogroup, i. e. affiliation (a foreign but established member) with another - originally 'corded' community. In different category - as an index sign - the ornament could represent also a relation to a specific family line or also information of different kind (measure, exchange, commodity parameters of the object - representative, or associations). The structured approach leads to presentation of two basic ornament forms - the aesthetic (artistic-utility-decorative) form and the informative (communication- purpose) form. Subjective platform of the ornament, however, in the both cases was created by a system of deep abstract thought - the corded civilization episteme. The notion is expressing a distinctive cultural code, general perception of world, a conception, arrangement, order and also spontaneous structure of thinking of prehistoric society. It represented a sum of values and principles of remarkably strong inner energy, which probably unconsciously kept a trend of group thinking. We interpret it as the corded civilization episteme, which in the given area and time represented itself by a special, inside converging and outside delimiting way of leading. In autochthonous communities of the west-Carpathian territory the corded civilization episteme survived for almost thousand years. In spite of the fact that it did not occur as a whole-society domain, but rather as a distant civilization episteme, the most probably it kept leading for the whole period of its existence. This concealed, unconscious and peculiar structure of thought, which was remarkable by its exclusivity, specific perception of world and in the long term symbolized by the corded ornament, survived in a turbulent heterocultural environment of the borderline of north-eastern and southern cultural complexes during the whole period of upper metallicum from the Late Aeneolithic up to the entering Tumulus cultures.
EN
The study abstracts from the traditional formal explanation of material culture as a system method commonly used to analyse historical sources. This commonly applied but depersonalized procedure is replaced by a structure with elements of a human’s role as a subject in history – the creator and his community. The investigation focuses mostly on the period of turbulent socio-cultural changes at the turn of the early and late European prehistory. In the territory of the northern inner Carpathians and in the northern Pontic territory, primarily, the depth and extent of mutual contacts between the communities of the Pit Grave (and pre-Pit Grave) Culture people and the northern Carpathian societies (allochthones and autochthones) is searched. With emphasis on the study of contours of the diffusion, migration, immigration, invasion and acculturation processes, the investigation is aimed to uncover the subject, causes and consequences of trans-territorial population movements.
EN
The study deals more with the manifestations of eastern flows, especially those of the Yamna culture, in the autochthonous North Carpathian milieu. It explores the background of mobile, migration and invasive movements, and last but not least, social aspects of the trans-territorial contacts of different cultural worlds.
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EN
Progression of pastoral economy of the young Aeneolithic societies of the north-western Inner Carpathians grew also on the background of external influences. It eventually resulted in a high value of a herd which was probably formally expressed in the increased number of zoomorphic sculptures. It is the part of the database of finds of small zoomorphic statues from this period and territory which suggests similarity with Trans-Carpathian Eurasian finds. Together with the presence of individuals or groups of eastern origin, the increase in the number of new long wool sheep species originally bred in the Near East and transported to the territory of the Inner Carpathians at the end of the old prehistory can be considered a consequence of eastern impulses in relation to the higher frequency of small animal sculptures. The value of the domesticated animal intensified the process of social status, preferred the owner of the herd and the service unit and was deeply reflected in the abstract world of Baden autochtones.
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