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EN
Reduction of the fungal community in soil caused by the addition of the fungicide methiram and the antibiotic actidione was accompanied by an intensive development of the community of copiotrophic bacteria. Irrespective of the fungal toxic substances used, there was a particularly conspicuous increase in the numbers of bacteria belonging to fluorescent Pseudomonas, among which three morphologically and physiologically different groups were distinguished. All the isolated strains of Pseudomonas were mycolytic and antibiotic for typical bacteria and actinomycetes; most of them decomposed methiram, but none decomposed actidione. Moreover, propagating rapidly in the presence of methiram were also bacteria from the species Vibrio proteolyticus (Aeromonas proteolyticus), and in the presence of actidione, bacteria from the species Sporocytophaga myxococcoides. The Vibrio strains, but not those of Sporocytophaga, were also mycolytic, like fluorescent Pseudomonas. Contrary to Pseudomonas, no strain of Vibrio nor of Sporocytophaga was antibiotic for typical bacteria and actinomycetes or able to decompose methiram or actidione.
EN
Allergic diseases are categorized as civilization diseases. The highest rise of sick count is reported in highly developed countries. The course of these illnesses is very long and require long-term therapy, and a high level of patients dedication. They pose a great threat of medical and social nature. The aim of the study was to determine how allergic diseases influence the quality of life of the patients. The study was carried out amongst 110 people with allergy-based diseases. The tool used was the standard interview questionnaire. Amongst the group, 58.2% were women, and 64.5% lived in a city, in 57.3% of the cases allergy has occurred after reaching the age of 18. 59.1% required constant therapy. Because of the disease 35.5% of patients had to change the family's diet. 27.3% had to remove all animals, 15.5% had to remove house plants, 57.7% changed the way of doing laundry and cleaning. Because of the disease, 33.6% had to limit contact with other people.
EN
Water quality data from the upper Dunajec watershed collected by the state monitoring service in the last 25 years (1977-2003) were examined to asses the evolution of water quality indicators and evaluate the limnological status of the recently constructed Czorsztyn reservoir. The characterization of the watershed and its hydrology is followed by the presentation of physico-chemical and some biological descriptors. The discussion emphasises the temporal trends and links between various observations. It has been concluded that the deterioration of physico-chemical water quality of the upper Dunajec river observed between 1977 and 1988 has been partly reversed due to the construction of wastewater treatment plants and possibly due to the collapse of economic development in 1989.
EN
Most lakes in Poland are shallow and vulnerable to degradation mostly due to lake morphology and landscape structure. Other factors, like discharged sewage, internal loading and human activities in the watershed are also important. During studies on Brdowskie Lake, water samples were taken twice a year (spring and summer season) from the surface layer and analyses of soluble reactive phosphates, total phosphorus, nitrates, conductivity, five-day biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, dry mass of seston and Secchi depth were undertaken. Brdowskie Lake is situated in Kujawskie Lakeland and its catchment basin covers about 155.3 km2. The littoral vegetation is dominated by reed bed with a minor presence of other taxa. The lake is very susceptible to degradation (morphology, agricultural lands, housing) and has several potential sources of pollution, e.g. Noteæ River, a nameless stream and summer houses. In general, water quality of the lake was better during the spring season, especially in terms of chlorophyll a and dry mass of seston concentrations. In 1997- -2006, the level of conductivity was very changeable with the maximum values observed in 1999-2001. Significant correlations between some parameters in certain seasons of the year were found, e.g. between chlorophyll a and Secchi depth during spring and total phosphorus and phosphates in summer. The impact of water level fluctuations on water quality parameters, like total phosphorus and chlorophyll a was observed. According to the results, the quality water in Brdowskie Lake is improving. After a biological wastewater treatment plant in the catchment had opened, the rate of salts flowing into the lake with sewage was reduced.
PL
Większość jezior w Polsce to jeziora płytkie i podatne na degradację. Jej głównym powodem są na ogół morfologia zbiorników oraz niekorzystna struktura użytkowania zlewni. Inne czynniki, takie jak dopływ ścieków, ładunek wewnętrzny i działalność gospodarcza, mają również istotne znaczenie. Podczas badań Jez. Brdowskiego próby wody pobierano 2 razy w roku (wiosną i jesienią) z warstwy powierzchniowej i wykonywano oznaczenia takich wskaźników, jak: fosfor reaktywny, fosfor ogólny, azot azotanowy, przewodność elektrolityczna właściwa, pięciodobowe zapotrzebowanie tlenu, chlorofil a, sucha masa sestonu i widzialność krążka Secchi’ego. Jezioro Brdowskie usytuowane na Pojezierzu Kujawskim ma zlewnię o pow. ok. 155,3 km2. Litoral zdominowała trzcina, a udział innych taksonów roślin jest mały. Akwen bardzo podatny na degradację (warunki morfologiczne, duży udział terenów wykorzystywanych rolniczo, zabudowania wiejskie) ma wiele potencjalnych źródeł zanieczyszczenia wody, jak np. rzeka Noteć, ciek bez nazwy, domki letniskowe z nieuregulowaną gospodarką wodnościekową oraz pobliskie zabudowania wiejskie. Zazwyczaj jakość wody była wyższa na wiosnę, szczególnie odnośnie do stężeń chlorofilu a oraz suchej masy sestonu. W latach 1997-2006 poziom przewodności elektrolitycznej był bardzo zmienny, a maksimum przypadało na lata 1999-2001. Stwierdzono istotne korelacje między niektórymi wskaźnikami w zależności od pory roku, jak w przypadku chlorofilu a i widzialności krążka Secchi’ego wiosną i fosforu ogólnego i fosforanów rozpuszczonych latem. Zaobserwowano wpływ wahań poziomu lustra wody na niektóre wskaźniki jakości (fosfor ogólny, chlorofil a). Uzyskane wyniki świadczą o poprawie jakości wód Jez. Brdowskiego. Po uruchomieniu oczyszczalni ścieków w Poloniszu obniżył się np. poziom przewodności elektrolitycznej, co świadczy o ograniczeniu dopływu różnych soli do wód akwenu.
EN
Soil waterlogging is among abiotic stresses that influence species composition and productivity in numerous plant communities. The aim of the study was to find answer to the question of how waterlogging caused by beavers’ activity induces quantitative and qualitative changes of vegetation and soil seed bank levels of variable-moist meadows. An immediate effect of the waterlogging at the level of vegetation was the decline in species richness and a decrease in the values of the biodiversity index. Water stress inhibited growth and development of plants already present and, primarily, impeded recruitment of new individuals of species characteristic of variable-moist meadows, e.g. Cirsium rivulare, Filipendula ulmaria and Lythrum salicaria, which were replaced by Carex acutiformis. Prolonged waterlogging did not induce equally substantial changes in the soil seed bank as in the vegetation. Both in the waterlogged and control patches, slightly decreased species richness and biodiversity index were recorded. After waterlogging withdrawal, the reserves of the soil seed bank were slightly higher than the initial values. The differences were not statistically significant. In the waterlogged patch, the qualitative floristic similarity between taxa identified in the soil seed bank and vegetation cover declined, which was evidenced by the value of Jaccard’s index decreasing from 0.46 to 0.36. A reverse relationship was found in control patch, where the value of the similarity index slightly increased from 0.41 to 0.48.
16
Content available Evolution of the food retail trade in Poland
72%
EN
The food retail trade in Poland is undergoing significant structural changes. The changes basically consist in a dynamic increase in the number of large-format stores, and also in the processes of integration and concentration of trade. In the food trade there are also qualitative changes taking place, in the form of implementing innovations and modern methods of managing the stores. These questions are brought up in this article.
EN
Undertaken studies on diversity and prevalence of yeast-like fungi aimed at presenting the role of a hydrophyte treatment plant in cleaning municipal wastewater from potentially pathogenic fungi. One hundred and six isolates of fungi were obtained. The highest diversity of species was found in the sedimentation tank and in I and II reed beds. The dominating species were: Trichosporon beigelii, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica – isolated also from hospitalized patients. The number of fungal cells decreased progressively from uncountable in the sedimentation tank to 2,060 cfu/dm³ in the polishing pond. Reduction of the number and changes in species composition of yeasts like fungi take place in the hydrophyte treatment plants.
19
Content available Evolution of the food retail trade in Poland
72%
EN
The food retail trade in Poland is undergoing significant structural changes. The changes basically consist in a dynamic increase in the number of large-format stores, and also in the processes of integration and concentration of trade. In the food trade there are also qualitative changes taking place, in the form of implementing innovations and modern methods of managing the stores. These questions are brought up in this article.
EN
Phytoplankton in the littoral and pelagial zone of the urban Lake Jeziorak Mały were studied between April and October of 2002, 2003 and 2005. The relation between the abundance and biomass of green algae and selected physiochemical water parameters, species diversity and dominants in the total abundance and biomass of green algae were analyzed. The statistically significant relationships was noted between water temperature, oxygen content, total nitrogen and the biomass of green algae at the coefficient of multiple correlation R = 0.4722. Increased the abundance and biomass of green algae were followed by a decrease in water temperature and increase in oxygen content and total nitrogen concentration during their growth in a temperature range of 10.0℃ to 18.8℃. The maximum biomass of green algae was noted in September and the maximum their abundance in October at the highest total nitrogen concentration. In the case of abundance, dominated taxa typical of plankton (Micratinium pusillum, Chlamydomonas spp., Golenkinia radiata, Golenkiniopsis sp., Koliella variabilis and Monoraphidium concortum) and biomass one – filamentous forms as a component of plant periphyton (Spirogyra sp., Stigeoclonium sp. and Ulothrix tenuissima).
PL
Badania fitoplanktonu prowadzono w strefie brzegowej i pelagialu śródmiejskiego jeziora Jeziorak Mały w sezonie od kwietnia do października w latach 2002, 2003 i 2005. Analizowano relacje między liczebnością i biomasą zielenic a wybranymi parametrami fizyczno-chemicznymi wody. Badano różnorodność gatunkową oraz dominanty w ogólnej liczebności i biomasie zielenic. Stwierdzono istotny statystycznie związek między temperaturą wody, zawartością tlenu i azotu ogólnego a biomasą zielenic, gdy współczynnik korelacji wielokrotnej R = 0,4722. W okresie rozwoju zielenic, w temperaturze wody od 10,0 do 18,8℃, wzrost liczebności i biomasy tych glonów następował wraz z obniżaniem się temperatury wody, wzrostem natlenienia i zawartości azotu ogólnego. Maksimum biomasy zielenic odnotowano we wrześniu, a liczebności – w październiku, gdy zawartość azotu ogólnego była najwyższa. Najwięcej było taksonów typowo planktonowych (Micratinium pusillum, Chlamydomonas spp., Golenkinia radiata, Golenkiniopsis sp., Koliella variabilis i Monoraphidium concortum), a największą biomasę miały formy nitkowate wchodzące w skład peryfitonu roślinnego (Spirogyra sp., Stigeoclonium sp. i Ulothrix tenuissima).
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