The aim of the study was to determine the efficiency of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in surgical patients.Material and methods. During the period between January and December, 2005, eight surgical Departments were subject to investigation, considering surgical wound infections following selected procedures: 3 orthopedic departments, 3 general surgery departments, and two vascular surgery departments. Based on obtained results the following parameters concerning perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis were evaluated: was the procedure performed with antibiotic prophylaxis?; type of chemotherapeutic agent used, and duration of prophylaxis.Results. Inguinal hernia repair procedures were most often performed without antibiotic (33% of procedures). The statistically significant higher incidence index of surgical wound infections was confirmed in case of cholecystectomy without (18.8 vs 2%). In case of vascular procedures cefuroxime was used in 8 doses. In case of hip or knee joint endoprosthesis surgery cefazolin was administered in five doses. In 70% of cholecystectomy and hernial repair procedures one dose of cefazolin was used. Considering colorectal operations the following antibiotics were used: 6 doses of cefazolin in 36% of cases, and 8 doses of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid. Twenty-five percent of colorectal procedures required the administration of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and metronidazolConclusions. Analysis demonstrated that in spite of the many guidelines elaborated by scientific associations concerning perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, the above-mentioned are rarely administered according to clinical practice.