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The objective of this paper is to analyse the transformations in the field of museums in Poland, and to study more closely the process of constructing a museum model that meets contemporary challenges. Two types of museums are analysed here, namely national museums and museums of modern art, to demonstrate how their respective activities affect the structure of the field in question, bringing about change. It is the assumption of this study, following Pierre Bourdieu’s framework of conflict perspective, that museums situated in the field of orthodoxy and the ones in the field of heterodoxy compete within the artistic field for a symbolic domination over other participants. At the core interest of this study, there is a question to what extent chosen Polish museums and staff applies the principles of the New Museology in their daily practice.
This paper is an attempt to establish the place occupied by the concept of cultural capital proposed Pierre Bourdieu in American sociology. This category enjoys enduring popularity and is even considered to be one of the main achievements in cultural sociology as a research tool and a subject of analysis. At the same time cultural capital is an operationalised concept which is frequently used in a way which is completely detached from its original sense and meaning. The paper below presents Bourdieu's main assumptions concerning the relations between culture and society and the role played by cultural capital within his theory. In addition, it explains a series of theoretical and empirical doubts concerning the concept of cultural capital as formulated on the basis of American experience. Of particular interest is the question of the nature of cultural resources which can be called capital, the problem of their social distribution, the rewards which they bring and, thus, their usefulness as a marker and guarantee of social position. The paper also raises the issue of the definition and effectiveness of the cultural signs of social status in the broader context of the conditions which define late modern society.
Filozofia (Philosophy)
tom 61
nr 4
309 - 322
Bourdieu does not blind the fact that he branched from the French structuralism and that he is a critic of its static character which he surmounts by means of the dynamism characterizing the interpretative theories. He introduces a number of new concepts into sociology for what he is blamed on one hand because it complicates understanding his own theory; on the other hand it enables him to avoid the epistemological dichotomy of objective versus subjective approaches, as well as the dichotomy, rather value or political one, of consensual versus conflict understanding of the contemporary societies. He leaves out the structuralist meanings of the words status, structure, class, fights, what still does not place him on the side of the critics of structuralism or the conflict theories. The frame of all Bourdieu's works is his theory of reproduction of society and creation, or preservation of order. It is the substance of his theory of action, even though not always explicitly expressed in all his works. Bourdieu's theory, based on the relation 'position-disposition- interaction', or, in Bourdieu's terms, 'structure-habitus-practice', has rather the character of Merton's medium-range theory than that of Parson's macrotheory.
Social and sociological orientation in the contemporary Western literary criticism is one of the most interesting but also the most fashioned trends. In his works about literature, Bourdieu represents a trial for reconciliation of structuralistic methodology and Marxist views in the social sciences and humanities becoming one of the motivational sociological and cultural issues. The article maps some of Bourdieu's opinions and shows a view of possible application of his results in the study of history of literature. Bourdieu's analysis in the French modernism from the second half of 19th century (Les regles de l'art) opens literary topics for sociological orientation of both theory and empirical research under one condition - to not apply his systematism and terminology in a mechanical way. In connection with the general tendencies to contextual study of literature seems to change the existing traditional approaches in a literary history by the contribution of the cultural representations of the time in study.
Content available remote Co to znamená, když se řekne "literary culture"?
This essay, on the use of the term 'literary culture' in Anglophone literary studies as used in the book by Peter D. McDonald, considers its methodological background - namely, Pierre Bourdieu's conception of the 'history of the book' as presented by Robert Darnton.
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