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1
Content available remote Zmeny a stabilita v rodinných procesoch v priebehu skorej adolescencie
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EN
Objectives. Adolescence is a period characterized by huge changes in most aspects of adolescents' development. However, research on the changes in family processes and parent-adolescent relationships has not been very frequent. Moreover, a closer look at the developmental changes within the specific period of early adolescence is needed. Sample. A five wave longitudinal study was performed with 497 adolescents (T1 mean age 11.52; T5 mean age 13.09; 59.4% of girls). Hypotheses. This study aims to examine the changes in several family processes in adolescents between the ages of 11.5 and 13. A decrease in the emotional dimension of family processes and in parental knowledge and an increase in behavioural control is expected. Statistical analysis. The changes in family processes were studied using Linear mixed models (LMM) in SPSS. Results. The LMM with longitudinal data revealed the following results: a significant decrease in satisfaction with the relationship with mother (F=14.15, p≤.000), father (F=4.6, p≤.01), caring relationships (F=6.01, p≤.01) and opportunities for meaningful participation (F=8.04, p≤.001) with no interaction effect of gender. Limits. The study only focuses on partial aspects of family processes as perceived by adolescents. A focus on other family pprocesses as well as data received from parents would be interesting.
SK
Teoretické východská. Adolescencia je charakterizovaná významnými zmenami v mnohých aspektoch vývinu dospievajúcich. Štúdie zamerané na zmeny v rodinných procesoch a vzťahy medzi adolescentom a rodičmi však nie sú časté. Zároveň sa javí byť dôležité zamerať pozornosť podrobnejšie na obdobie skorej adolescencie. Výskumný súbor. Päť vĺn zberu údajov bolo uskutečnených medzi 497 adolescentmi (priemerný vek v T1 11,52 rokov, priemerný vek v T5 13,09 rokov; 59,4 % dievčat). Hypotéza. Hlavným cieľom práce bolo sledovať zmeny v niektorých rodinných procesoch z pohľadu adolescentov mezdi 11,5tym a 13tym rokom. Očakávané bolo zhoršenie v emocionálnej dimenzii rodinných procesov a v rodičovskej informovanosti, a naopak zvýšenie percipovanej behaviorálnej kontroly rodičov. Štatistické analýzy. Zmeny v priebehu 5 vĺn zberu boli sledované pomocou lineárnych zmiešaných modelov. Výsledky. Výsledky lineárnych zmiešaných modelov poukazujú na signifikantný pokes v spokojnosti so vzťahom s matkou (F=14,15, p≤0,001),otcom (F=4,6, p≤0,01), podporných vzťahoch (F=6,01, p≤0,01) a zmysluplnej participácii (F=8,04; p≤0,001), bbez interakčného efektu s rodom. V ostatných premenných nebola zaznamenaná štatisticky významnázmena. Limity. Štúdia je zameraná len na čiastkové aspekty rodinných procesov tak, ako ich vnímajů adolescenti. Zaujímavým by bolo zamerať sa na dalšie rodinné procesy, ako i získať údaje od rodičov.
EN
Adolescence is a time of particular susceptibility to mental disorders. A programme aimed at facilitating emotional development in teenagers might be an important element of prophylactic psychopathology targeting young people. The activities proposed here are group activities and have several aims: to develop the ability to become self-aware regarding one's emotions and regulate their intensity; to foster an attitude of caring for oneself; and to teach problem-solving. What is of particular significance is shaping young people’s habits in being proactive in their personal development.
EN
The present study used the „CORT 2004 Questionnaire Regarding Risk Behavior for Health in Young People” for an epidemiological survey on 2908 high school students of the urban area of Timis County, western Romania. The aim of this study is to analyze the magnitude of the illicit drug use of Romanian adolescents and to delineate the parental protective factors inside the family.
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Content available remote Školské sebapoňatie a kvalita interpersonálnych vzťahov adolescenta
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Adolescence is a period which is characterized by an increase in the importance of interpersonal relationships and by search for a balance between relationships with parents and peers. At the same time, self is being formed and the importance of academic selfconcept as one of the dimensions of the total adolescent‘s self-concept is increasing. The aim of study was explore relations between total academic self-concept and its dimensions (academic effort and academic confidence) and quality of interpersonal relationships with significant people in adolescent‘s life (mother, father, friends and classmates) and its dimensions (support, depth and conflicts). These relations were explored separately for adolescent boys and girls. Intersexual differences in academic self-concept and quality of relationships (including their dimensions) were studied too. Research sample was made by 104 grammar school pupils (48 boys and 56 girls). All four grades of high school were represented in the sample. Respondents were aged from 15 to 20 years old (AM=17.62; SD=1.10). Two measures were used – Academic Self-Concept Questionnaire (Liu & Wang, 2005) for exploring of adolescent‘s academic self-concept and its dimensions and Quality of Relationship Inventory (Pierce, Sarason, & Sarason, 1991) for exploring of adolescent‘s view on quality of his or her relationship with mother, father, friends and classmates. Spearman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney‘s U-test and Student‘s independent sample t-test were used for statistical analysis. These results indicated that secure attachment and closeness to both of parents (characteristic for dimension depth of relationships) are associated with higher interest in school, motivation to activity on lessons and higher effort to meet school responsibilities in adolescent boys. Academic effort has positive relationship with support and depth of relationship with classmates in adolescent girls. These findings indicate that positive clime in class is important for interest in school and efforts to meet school responsibilities of adolescent girls. Girls are probably compared with classmates and their support and acceptance affects girls‘ academic self-concept more than in case of adolescent boys. Total academic self-concept and academic confidence aren‘t associated with dimensions of quality of relationships with parents and friends for adolescent boys and girls. These findings indicate that confidence in one‘s own school abilities is associated with another variables for pupils. On the parents‘ side, it can be interest, communication, expectations or feedback about school and school responsibilities. On the peers‘ side, it can be support or evaluation of school performance and success. On the teacher‘s side, it can be expectations, feedback or support. Our findings indicate that adolescent boys and girls don‘t differ in total academic self-concept. Girls reported higher effort and interest in lessons, and they pay more attention to teachers (higher score in dimension academic effort), while boys reported higher confidence in their own school abilities (higher score in dimension academic confidence). These differences in dimensions of academic self-concept weren‘t significant. Adolescent girls reached higher level in dimensions of quality of interpersonal relationships – support and depth of relationship with mother and friends. Adolescent boys and girls perceived their relationships with classmates as less supportive and less close compared to relationships with parents or friends. These findings are in line with observations of teachers and school psychologists who point to worsening relationships in school classes.
EN
While numerous studies have examined correlates of physical activity, less attention has been given to identifying the rural/urban differences in the strength of the relationship between physical activity and health. The main objective of the current study was to analyze relationships between physical activity, sedentary behavior, and the health of rural and urban adolescents. Cross-sectional data on physical activity (Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity, MVPA), sedentary behavior (watching TV and using a computer), self-rated general health, and mental health (General Health Questionnaire, GHQ-12) was assessed through a questionnaire in the sample of 600 Polish adolescents aged 13 years. Pearson χ2, t-Student tests and hierarchical regression analyses were used to compare differences by place of residence. No rural/urban differences in physical activity levels and self-rated health were found. Rural boys spent more time watching TV and urban adolescent males spent more time using a computer. Urban girls were more affected by stress than rural. Physical activity was an important predictor of self-assessed health (8% of variance) and mental health (4% of variance) of adolescents living in rural areas. The results show that physical activity level is an important predictor of rural adolescents’ health and particular attention must be paid to promoting physical activities in rural environments.
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A proposal is presented in the article of integrating Schwartz's circular model of values (1992, 1994, 2006) with Scheler's concept of values (Brzozowski, 1995). The main research goals were: 1) empirical verification of the attempt to include the values of Scheler into the circle of Schwartz’s values; 2) use of the concept and measurement of Scheler’s values to describe the development of the value structure during adolescence. Two studies were conducted in a group of 988 persons aged from 15 to 20 years. The Scheler Value Scale of Brzozowski (1995) was used along with the new version of the Schwartz’s Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2011). In the first study, multidimensional scaling of multitrait-multimathod (MTMM) matrix was carried out, into which were introduced the indexes of Scheler's values and the indexes of Schwartz's value types. In this way, it was demonstrated that it is possible to include Scheler's values in the four higher order values within Schwartz's circle of values. In the second study, it was shown that by using the Schelerian values to analyse the development of the value structure, similar results were obtained to those that were acquired with the aid of instruments intended to measure values in Schwartz's approach. The structure becomes differentiated with age and takes on the shape of a circle.
EN
The contribution presents a new education and training programme “Stepping into Life with the Right Values,” aimed to improve integration of mentally disabled pupils into the system of vocational training centres and thus also society. The goal of the presented programme was not only to create suitable conditions for pupils’ harmonious adaptation to the dormitory environment, but also to teach them appropriate orientation in various life situations. Effectiveness of the programme was verified experimentally at selected vocational training centres in Slovakia during the 2015/2016, 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 school years. Our research confirmed that pupils who had gone through the adaptation process using the new programme were statistically significantly better oriented in ordinary life situations at the school dormitory, but also in ordinary life situations outside.
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Content available remote Vykonávanie aktivít v oblasti starostlivosti o seba v priebehu života
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The aim of this study is to identify the level of performing self-care activities during lifetime, clarify the structure of these activities and detect the existence of gender differences. Sample consists of 713 respondents (429 women and 284 men), at the age between 15 and 89 years (average age 43,81; SD=23,12). Data are collected in particular development stages from adolescence (15-19 years), young adulthood (20-35 years), and adulthood (36-65 years) to senescence (66 and more years). For data collection Performed Self-Care Questionnaire (Lovaš & Hricová, 2015) is used. This instrument consists from 21 items focusing on three areas: physical wellbeing (factor 1), activities performed in the situation of health problems (factor 2) and positive frame of mind (factor 3). Interesting results were shown. At first, self-care intensity is relatively stable during life. In closer look to the structure of performed actions it is shown, that in the first part of life is the most frequent strategy the care of one´s psychical wellbeing. Contrariwise, in the second half of life are activities associated with health preservation and health problems prevention preferred. Similar results are shown in Orem and Vardiman (1995), who are interested in effects of specific development factors on self-care. Development trend, that lies in decreasing character of performed self-care activities in the area of physical wellbeing and increasing of self-care activities related with health problems and psychical wellbeing is confirmed. Explanation of this trend can be partially found in publications of Šolcová (2011), Zeleznik (2007) or Merluzzi and Nairn (2009), in which authors describe gradual increase of health problems connected with rising age and efforts done for their elimination. Other sources can be found also in work of Ráczová and Zibrinyiová (2014), where decrease of care of physical wellbeing is compensated by more accessible strategies, for example psychical wellbeing preservation. Gender differences are not confirmed, according to results in Lovaš (2010) survey. The idea of successful ageing reached by self-care perceived as perpetual activity is supported by results of this study. Attempts to understand these problems can lead to exploration of different strategies that will affect ageing processes in desirable way even during life and they can improve quality of life not only at individual level, but at all-society level too.
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The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of homosexual men connected with the formation of their sexual orientation in adolescence. A comparative study of 27 young adult homosexual men and 28 heterosexual men of similar age used a categorised interview questionnaire consisting of two parts: the first with questions regarding sexual dreams, fantasies and erotic encounters; the second with questions on family and social circumstances. The study yielded an abundance of interesting data on the psychological circumstances of homosexual men during the formation of sexual orientation and its awareness as well as differences and similarities in that area between homosexual and heterosexual men. For instance, it revealed experience patterns concerning the formation of sexual identity and personal attitudes toward one’s sexual orientation characteristic of homosexual persons. The study verified the main hypothesis that mental-internal experiences precede behavioural-external ones both in homosexual and heterosexual persons.
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Content available Development of Self-concept in Slovak Adolescents
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The aim of the cross-sectional study is to map the development of self-concept in adolescents in terms of the Piers-Harris domain approach as well as to capture gender specifics, if any, in the process of its formation. Research involved 290 adolescents, divided in three age categories. The Piers-Harris Children’s and Adolescents´ Self-Concept Scale (Obereignerů et al., 2015) was used as the research tool. Results do not indicate statistically significant differences between groups of adolescents in their overall self-concept by age, except in certain self-concept dimensions. More specific results are provided by the gender analysis of age differences. Over time, change in physical self-concept (PHY) occurs in boys, and changes in behavioural self and anxiety (BEH, FRE) occur in girls. Results of the study can be taken into consideration by all school professionals in their work.
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The article deals with the analysis of adolescents’ life satisfaction in the context of family and family environment. The research was made on a sample of 420 young people aged between 16-18 years. To measure life satisfaction we used Life satisfaction questionnaire. Data concerning family and family environment were gained using anamnesis questionnaire. We found out that adolescents who live with a single mother are significantly more satisfied than adolescents who live with both parents. Among the most satisfied with their life were also those young people who said that there are no arguments or conflicts in their family.
SK
Príspevok sa zaoberá analýzou ţivotnej spokojnosti adolescentov v kontexte rodiny a rodinného prostredia. Výskum sme uskutočnili na vzorke 420 adolescentov vo veku od 16-18 rokov. Ţivotnú spokojnosť adolescentov sme merali Dotazníkom ţivotnej spokojnosti. Údaje o rodine a rodinnom prostredí sme zisťovali úvodným anamnestickým dotazníkom. V našom výskumnom súbore adolescentov sme zistili, ţe mladí ľudia ţijúci len s mamou sú významne spokojnejší ako mladí ľudia ţijúci s oboma rodičmi. Rovnako adolescenti, ktorí udávali len zriedkavý výskyt konfliktov v rodine, dosahovali najvyššiu ţivotnú spokojnosť.
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A young person's perception of his past, present, and future life is shaped during his adolescence. The potential/prospective self of an adolescent includes his ideas and plans concerning his future life and, therefore, constitutes an important source of his motives for activity and development. This paper presents results of its author's own research on the ways in which adolescents with visual disability receiving special education in the Silesian Voivodship perceive their own future lives. The theoretical part of the paper contains an analysis of the concept of self-perception and related concepts. Special attention is paid to defining different kinds of self-perception, analyzing their functions, and indicating factors that determine their development during adolescence. An overview of selected pieces of research on the self-image of the blind and visually impaired people allowed a description of the influence of self-perception on social and personal functioning of adolescents with visual disability.
EN
Prosocial behavior is correlated with better social adjustment among adolescents, while emotional abilities are prominent factors that enhance prosocial behaviors. Attention to emotions and clarity of emotion were found as two core dimensions of emotional abilities. In the presented study the relationships between attention to emotion and clarity of emotion and prosocial behavior were examined with gender as a moderator. Two hundred and fourteen adolescents participated in the study (86 males). The participants filled in the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and Prosocial Behavior Questionnaire (PBQ). Two dimensions underlying the subscales of TAS-20 and TMMS were found: inattention to emotions and unclear emotion. Gender differences appeared in emotion awareness dimensions and prosocial behavior. Using structural equation modeling it was shown that inattention to emotion, yet not unclear emotion, inhibits prosocial behavior.
EN
Despite the fact that meaning in life has been portrayed as a highlighted developmental goal in psychology, yet little research has examined its influencing factors in adolescence. In the present study we examined potential individual and parental correlates of meaning in life in a sample of 1944 adolescents (aged between 15–19 years; 47.8 percent males) from secondary schools of Transylvania. While self-efficacy, self-regulation, perceived social support from parents and mother’s responsiveness were positively related to meaning in life, father’s demandingness was negatively related to this variable in the whole sample. However, social comparison was related to meaning in life only among boys, while father’s responsiveness was associated with it only among girls. These findings draw our attention to those socio-cultural influences that may be prevailing in meaning in life through role socialization during adolescence, providing bases for preventive and promoting interventions.
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The current study examines friendship quality and quantity as unique predictors of rejection sensitivity in adolescents. The purpose of the study was to analyze whether the unique contributions of friendship quality and quantity differ in adolescent boys and girls. Rejection sensitivity is conceptualized as the disposition to anxiously expect, readily perceive and intensively react to social rejection. That is why rejection sensitivity is considered to be a cognitive-affective mechanism which leads to increase of internalizing problems in children and adolescents (loneliness, social anxiety, depression...). Friendship variables have been found to predict the level of internalizing problems in adolescents. Little to no research, however, has examined friendship quality and quantity as predictors of level of rejection sensitivity. Participants in this study were 184 students (98 girls and 86 boys), aged from 13 to 16 (M=13.83, SD=1). Adolescents completed measures assessing number of their friends, quality of best friendship (self-report questionnaire Friendship qualities scale, Bukowski, Hoza, Boivin, 1994) and rejection sensitivity (self-report questionnaire Rejection sensitivity scale, Downey, Feldman, 1996). Regression analysis indicated that friendship features (companionship, balance, help, security, closeness), friendship quantity and overall friendship quality are significant unique predictors of sensitivity rejection in adolescents with. Results suggest that adolescents with higher number of and higher quality friendships have lower concerns about the possibility and expectation of rejection, which can lead to minimizing the risk of development of internalizing problems. However, only a small proportion of variance was accounted for in rejection sensitivity by the friendship variables (small to medium effect size). This suggests that different kind of peer relationships (peer acceptance, popularity, peer victimization) make unique, differential (greater or lesser) contributions to rejection sensitivity. Different types of peer relations can moderate and mediate each other´s influence on specific types of internalizing problems in adolescents. The future research simultaneously examining more types of peer relationship is needed. There has been empirical evidence that girls have more quality friendships which provide them more emotional and instrumental support, than for boys. Our results support this empirical evidence. Regression analysis indicated, that balance (large effect size), help, security and closeness in friendship (small to medium effect size) and overall friendship quality (medium effect size) are significant unique predictors of rejection sensitivity for adolescent girls, but not for boys. Results suggest that predictors of sensitivity rejection in boys are other than interpersonal factors, for example personal or coping strategies. Further directions in research are discussed.
EN
The article addresses the problem of hope for success among adolescents growing up in migrant families. This issue is related to the problems of social work, family sociology, and psychology of human development. The knowledge of development opportunities for young people from migrant families may be of particular cognitive value for social workers who face the protective potential of the migrant family in practice. Parents’ departure leads to children becoming independent rapidly, and to family influence on the individual’s life becoming shorter. Many researchers deal with the problem of the negative consequences of migration separation for child development. Few works show the development opportunities and potential of people growing up in families that are spatially separated due to migration. The article describes a fragment of youth’s functioning who had to undertake new duties because of their parents’ departure, such as: taking over the care of their siblings, running their household, and looking after their grandparents with whom they live in the absence of their parents. To determine the level of hope for success among those young people, the Hope for Success Questionnaire by Mariola Łaguna, Jerzy Trzebiński, and Mariusz Zięba was used. The study covered 87 teenagers attending upper-secondary schools in Kujawy-Pomerania Province. The control group consisted of young people whose parents did not migrate abroad for economic reasons, while the criterion group consisted of adolescents growing up in disconnected families. Social workers’ activities include providing help to families. The knowledge of the specific functioning of migration families can help to better support such families. The article aims to discuss the issue of adolescents growing up in migrant families who, because of their parents’ economic migration, must face new responsibilities, often typical of an adult and inadequate for their developmental level.
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Content available remote Evaluation of Barefoot Running in Preadolescent Athletes
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Purpose. The literature shows few studies on shod and unshod running performance in athletes, with most limited to laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate preadolescent 1000 m running performance when barefoot and in running spikes or training shoes. Methods. A sample of 22 boys and 21 girls aged 10.6 ± 1.1 years was recruited. Anthropometric data and VO2max were recorded when completing the three study protocols in a counter balanced design. Student’s t tests were applied to compare mean 1000 m finish times while ANOVA was used to evaluate sex differences between the protocols. Pearson's correlation analysis measured interactions between the finish times, anthropometric variables, and VO2max. Results. Running performance with spikes (4.58 min) was significantly better than with training shoes (5.21 min) and barefoot (5.18 min). Male 1000 m times were overall better than the females. A substantial effect of VO2max and body fat on performance was found in all protocols. Conclusions. Preadolescent endurance performance was not significantly different between training shoes and barefoot; this may serve as an incentive for future research on the training of developmental age runners.
EN
The article deals with an important problem of suicides committed in a group of young people during early adolescence. Scientific reflection focuses on three basic issues. The first one deals with the characteristics of early adolescence, the second one deals with the problem of suicide, and the third one deals with the specificity of suicide in people in the period of early adolescence. In this context, an urgent need to develop effective prophylaxis and the creation of modern theories and concepts of suicide should be indicated.
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Content available remote Problémy s přizpůsobením a prostředí ústavní péče
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Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643). The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070). We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical), primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490) = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect). Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect), Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect), Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect), Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect), Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect), Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect), and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect). Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159). Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment problems in the clinical range. Overall, the results do not correspond with previous findings, which describes more frequent presence of various adjustment problems. More frequently occur only the thought problems and rule-breaking behavior. Hyperactivity and cognitive problems are indicated as typical for residential care children, with wider causes in the emotional development. Problems with rule-breaking behavior have most likely a complex background. MANOVA analysis confirmed the finding that there is a significant difference between groups, but in most cases only with small effect. The residential care environment in the Czech Republic thus can be evaluated as functional, regarding its purpose and function. Conclusion: The results showed the differences in the presence of adjustment problems in adolescents growing up in the family and in institutional care, but also pointed to the fact that these differences are in most cases only small. The current state of the residential care environment in terms of adjustment problems can be evaluated as quite positive.
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Purpose of the study: Main purposes of conducted studies were to assess adolescents self-esteem and to recognise the selfesteem role in the expression of anger. Material and method: The study involved 221 people (including 95 girls and 126 boys) aged 15–18 years. There have been applied a Polish adaptation of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) by Z. Juczyński and N. Ogińska-Bulik and Z. Juczyński Anger Expression Scale (SEG) and our own survey. Results: The analysis has revealed that adolescents, who had lower self-esteem in a scholastic me perspective, more often directed their anger inward, were able to control or repress it more efficiently. On the other hand, those with higher self-esteem in a scholastic me perspective and overall higher level of their self-esteem more often directed their anger outward, both in an indirect and a direct manner. Discussion: Although the higher self-esteem is usually associated with a socially acceptable behaviour, some study results indicate stronger tendency to take an aggressive behaviour among people with the higher self-esteem. Probably, this is due to the fact that people with the higher self-esteem, seeing themselves as being worth of acceptance and respect, partially “exempt” themselves from their self-control. A satisfaction of their own behaviour might limit the readiness for self-correction of their reactions. Conclusions: Adolescents with higher self-esteem are more disposed to manifest their anger, and those with lower more frequently suppress this kind of emotions and control them more thoroughly. Overall self-esteem and one of its aspects – the scholastic me seem to be particularly important. Conviction of your own value and belief in your school success reduce the barrier to express the anger, as if they protect you from losing social attractiveness.
PL
Cel pracy: Głównymi celami przeprowadzonych badań były ocena poczucia własnej wartości wśród młodzieży i poznanie roli poczucia własnej wartości w ekspresji gniewu. Materiał i metoda: Badaniami objęto 221 osób (95 dziewcząt i 126 chłopców) w wieku 15–18 lat. W badaniach wykorzystano Inwentarz Poczucia Własnej Wartości (CSEI) S. Coopersmitha w polskiej adaptacji Z. Juczyńskiego, Skalę Ekspresji Gniewu (SEG) autorstwa N. Ogińskiej-Bulik i Z. Juczyńskiego oraz ankietę własną. Wyniki: Analizy wykazały, że adolescenci, którzy mieli niższe poczucie własnej wartości w aspekcie ja szkolnego, częściej kierowali gniew do wewnątrz, bardziej efektywnie kontrolowali go i tłumili. Natomiast ci, którzy mieli wyższe poczucie własnej wartości w aspekcie ja szkolnego i ogólnie wyższy poziom poczucia własnej wartości, częściej kierowali gniew na zewnątrz – w sposób pośredni i bezpośredni. Omówienie: Choć wyższe poczucie własnej wartości wiąże się zazwyczaj z zachowaniem społecznie akceptowanym, niektóre doniesienia z badań wskazują na silniejszą tendencję do podejmowania zachowań agresywnych u osób z wyższą samooceną. Przypuszczalnie jest to spowodowane faktem, że ludzie z wyższym poczuciem własnej wartości, postrzegający siebie jako wartych akceptacji i szacunku, „zwalniają się” częściowo z samokontroli. Zadowolenie z własnych zachowań może ograniczać ich gotowość do autokorekty reakcji. Wnioski: Adolescenci z wyższym poczuciem własnej wartości są w większym stopniu skłonni do uzewnętrzniania gniewu, natomiast ci z niższym częściej tłumią emocje tego rodzaju i silniej je kontrolują. Szczególnie istotne dla regulacji emocjonalnej w adolescencji wydają się ogólne poczucie własnej wartości oraz jeden z jego aspektów – ja szkolne. Przekonanie o własnej wartości i sukcesie szkolnym zmniejsza barierę uzewnętrzniania gniewu, jakby chroniły one przed utratą atrakcyjności społecznej.
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