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EN
Background: A low prevalence of TB and MDR-TB was indicated from the retrospective study conducted at Pandit Dindayal Upadhyay Government Medical Hospital (PDUGMH) in Gujarat between 2018 and 2022. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis (TB), the most lethal infectious disease in the world that affects people of all ages. Material and methods: From its TB & Chest Department, a total of 5,624 TB notification records were reviewed for the study, of which 5207 were TB positive, with 3586 (68.87%) males and 1621 (31.13%) females. Results: Amongst positive patients, 215 were diabetic, and 454 were HIV positive. Of 5207 TB-positive patients, 2982 (57.27%) had pulmonary TB. Extra Pulmonary TB showed the maximum number of patients with an infected lymph node. Age between 15 to 29 years was the leading affected age group, with a high peak in 2019. Drug resistance of Shorter Multidrug Resistance (RR-TB) was observed with a maximum of 0.8% (n = 42) patients and of Oral longer MDR/FQ with a minimum of 0.1% (n = 3) patients. Conclusions: Findings indicate that in these five years, patients treated at PDUGMH exhibited a tuberculosis prevalence of 92.59%, with a corresponding rate of multidrug-resistant TB standing at 1.48%. A comprehensive assessment is required to depict the burden and guide initiatives for eradication.
EN
A study was carried out to determine the histopathology of the liver in cattle slaughtered in Port Harcourt Abattoir, River State, Nigeria, between October to December 2016, and to assess the prevalence of fascioliasis. In undertaking this, faeces were collected and processed using the formal ether concentration technique, while tissue samples for both infected and non-infected livers were collected for proper histopathological procedures. Herein, the livers of slaughtered cattle were examined through visualization, palpation and incision. The outcome of our work showed that out of the 712 randomly sampled cattle, 38 (5.34%) were infected. Of these, 571 were males with an infection rate of 32 (5.60%), while 141 were females with infection rate of 6 (4.25%). Based on breed, infection rates were 12 (4.35%), and 26 (6.02%) for breeds of Sokoto Gudali and Red Bororo, respectively. No infection was recorded in the White Fulani breed. There was no statistically significant association between infection and breed and between infection and sex of the animals sampled. In our histopathology studies of non-infected and infected livers, microscopically, the non-infected liver tissue cells, sinusoids, bile duct and portal tract were all normal. Our results also showed that there were no abnormal changes in the nucleus and the colour of the tissue. However, infected liver tissue appeared pale in colour and greatly swollen, indicating fibrosis. In addition, there was dilation in the central vein and debris and large patches scattered over the parietal surface. Moreover, the pipe stem appearance of the liver was evident. Such histopathological changes indicate tissue damage and this results in economic losses in rearing and in butchering in animals, and in harm to human health. Proper abattoir inspection and care by veterinary workers is therefore required to ensure that heavily damaged livers are not sold for public consumption.
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Content available remote Prevalence of primary aldosteronism among bulgarian hypertensive patients
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EN
Primary aldosteronism (PA) has long been considered a rare disease, but a higher prevalence was suggested recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of PA in a group of Bulgarian hypertensive patients, including patients with adrenal incidentalomas (AI). The aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR)>750 was used as a positive screening test and the Captopril test was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Adrenal CT scan was used to differentiate between the main subtypes of PA- aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism (IHA). The diagnosis of APA was retrospectively confirmed after surgery. After excluding other forms of endocrine hypertension, except PA, we investigated a total of 472 consecutive hypertensive patients, among them 96 patients with AI. Final diagnosis of PA was reached in 38 patients (8.05%) in the entire hypertensive population and in 12 patients (12.5%) among hypertensive patients with AI. In the group of PA, 15 patients (39.5%) were diagnosed with APA and 23 patients (60.5%) had an IHA. Among all patients with PA 21 (55.3 %) presented with hypokalemia. Our findings of a relatively high prevalence of PA support an early diagnosis of this potentially curable disease, especially in hypertensive patients with AI.
4
Content available remote Prevalence and predictors of potential drug-drug interactions
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5
Content available remote The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease among Vilnius inhabitants
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EN
In a hospital-based study we investigated the prevalence of Parkinson’s disease among inhabitants of the Vilnius city, the capital of Lithuania. The study group was selected from patients who were diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease during the time frame of 1978-2005. Patients’ time of diagnosis were based on the data of dispensary cards, registration journals and/or other documentation. A questionnaire and Mini Mental State Examination provided data for analysis on the conditions of the patients. The prevalence of Parkinson’s disease in Vilnius is 1.32/1000 inhabitants and is higher in men than in women (p < 0.05). The age of Parkinson’s disease onset in men and women is the same (63.77 ± 0.70 years). The rigidity-tremor form of Parkinson’s disease is the most frequent (76.8% of all cases). The PD prevalence rate in Vilnius inhabitants are close to the mean levels observed in studies made in Finland, Austria, Germany. The prevailing form of Parkinson’s disease is rigidity-tremor.
EN
Giardiasis is a parasitic infection of the digestive tract, most commonly occurring in closed communities such as schools, kindergartens, prisons, and campuses. The civil war in the former Yugoslav republics and in Kosovo caused a large number of refugees to take shelter in the territory of Serbia. Such large numbers of refugees could be accommodated only in the collective centers. Our aim was to examine the differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic giardiasis among 122 refugees from the former Yugoslav republics who lived in the collective centers in Nis, Serbia, and 241 native Nis inhabitants. Conventional microscopic examination (CME) of three stool samples with or without concentration technique and the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) methods were used. The CME method of three stool samples is considered the gold standard in our statistical survey. Asymptomatic giardiasis is found in 7 refugees (5.7%) using the EIA method, while using the CME (3 samples) Giardia duodenalis (G. duodenalis) was detected in 6 persons (4.9%). Using the EIA method and the CME (3 samples) G. duodenalis was detected in only 1 person in the population group of native inhabitants (0.4%). Asymptomatic giardiasis was more prevalent in the population group of refugees accommodated in collective centers than in native inhabitants in the Nis municipality, Serbia.
EN
The aim of this work was to study the occurrence and impact of the Philometra sp. infestation in ovaries of Mugil chephalus from two different landing centers in Tamil Nadu of southeast coast of India. The samples were collected from Parangipettai and Nagapattinam. The prevalence and mean intensity of nematode infection and description were investigated. Based on the light and SEM microscopical examination, this species differs from other Philometra sp. in morphological and biometrical measurements by type of the infected fish family and by the ecological distribution. The study reveals that maximum (77%) prevalence of parasitic infestation was observed during monsoon 2017 in Parangipettai, whereas minimum (2%) was during the postmonsoon 2018 in Nagapattinam. The higher (7) mean intensity of parasitic infestation was noted during postmonsoon 2017 in Nagapattinam, whereas minimum (2) was during premonsoon 2018 in Parangipettai. The results of the ANOVA showed that there was no significant variation found prevalence and mean intensity of parasitic infestations between the stations. But there was a significant variation found between the season in the both stations. This is the first report of Philometra sp. in the ovary of Mugil chephalus. On the basis of nematode, infestation may cause a serious damage to ovary by slurping the blood, causing atrophy of developing ova, fibrosis, increasing granulocytes and hemorrhages, thus harmfully affecting the fish reproduction and indirectly affecting the fisher men communities.
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Content available Bacteriuria of women of child bearing age
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EN
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide. In this study, urine samples were collected from thirty women of child bearing age (18-25 years) to determine the prevalence of bacteriuria, as well as the presence of pus cells and white blood cells which are signs of infection. The urine microscopy result revealed that 7 (23.3%) of the sample had greater than 10 leucocytes per high power field. Only four of the samples had a significant number of pus cells. The bacteria count recorded ranged from 25 cfu/0.001 ml to 276 cfu/0.001 ml. Of the samples, 13 were positive for bacteriuria having bacterial count greater than 100 cfu/0.001 ml. The bacteria isolates include Klebsiella spp. (3.8%), Streptococcus spp. (2.5%). Escherichia coli (62.5%) and Staphylococcus spp. (21.2%). Of these, Klebsiella spp. was the least prevalent and Escherichia coli had the highest number of occurrence. These organisms were very sensitive to Ciprofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Zinnacef and Gentamycin according to the antimicrobial susceptibility test carried out. Ciprofloxacin was found to be the most effective antibiotics against all the bacterial isolates. Here, zones of inhibition ranged from 15 mm (Streptococcus spp.) to 20 mm (Escherichia coli). All the bacterial isolates were resistant to Amoxicillin, with zones of inhibition between 11 (Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus spp.) and 13 mm (Streptococcus spp.). Since the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is high, early diagnosis and proper treatment is necessary in order to prevent it from becoming symptomatic.
EN
The aim of this study was to determine underweight, overweight, and obesity prevalence in representative sample of adult (≥ 18 years old) Turkish population living in urban and rural area of Turkey. Turkish citizens aged ≥ 18 who can represent adult population and permanently resident in Turkey were taken to this study in 1999–2000. The nationally representative sample population was selected from the target population using the census which was performed by national institute of statistics at 1997. Target population was 13.570 individuals living in these houses and 8674 people who aged ≥ 18 are chosen for the study. BMI was used as widely accepted diagnostic criteria of obesity. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of underweight was 10.7% in men, 5.9% in women and 8.1% for overall. The prevalence of overweight was 17.4% in men, 20.4% in women and 19% for overall. The prevalence of obesity was 7.8% in men, 22.1% in women and 15.6% for overall. The prevalence of overweight is higher (19.6%) in urban areas but prevalence of obesity is higher (17%) in rural areas of Turkey. Age, educational level and marital status seem to have association with obesity prevalence. The data we obtained showed us that while the underweight is still an issue for men, the overweight and obesity prevalence is high and needs to take early prevention steps for Turkish population.
EN
Hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidaemia, obesity and smoking are known to be the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because the elderly population has been increasing globally, CVD may become a more important public health problem in the future. This report examines the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly in Ankara, Turkey. This was a cross-sectional survey and included a total of 2720 individuals living in the Ankara district. Trained research staff administered a standard questionnaire in the participants’ homes and worksites. The questionnaire collected information on clinical and demographic characteristics and a self-reported medical history, including past history of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease, coronary artery by-pass graft operation, and cerebrovascular accident. The mean age of the study participants was 69.5 ± 7.2 years. The study identified 1298 women (78.1%) and 753 men (71.2%) with hypertension, and the overall prevalence of hypertension was 75.4%. A total of 739 (27.2%) people had diabetes mellitus, and, of these people, 603 (81.6%) were hypertensive. A total of 1361 people had hyperlipidemia, and 1103 of these patients were also hypertensive. The overall prevalence of obesity was 27.2%. A total of 553 (20.3%) people were smokers. Our findings indicate that cardiovascular risk factors are very common in the elderly. To maximize risk reduction, physicians must take aggressive measures to decrease cardiovascular risk factors.
EN
The human ABO blood and Rhesus could be an important determining factor in the distribution and co-infection of human malaria parasite and Syphilis infection. Owing to the widespread of malaria, reckless lifestyle and attitudes of present-day youths towards hygiene and sex-life, and increasing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) amongst students, it is crucial to assess the risk of exposure, distribution, and ascertain the most susceptible blood group to these infections. Malaria is an important cause of ill-health primarily transmitted by Female Anopheles mosquito and is responsible for severe morbidity and mortality especially in Sub-Sahara Africa and globally; while coinfection is the single or collective habitation of pathogenic organism in host body. Syphilis is an infection caused by Treponema sp usually transmitted by sexual contact via a chancre. This work investigated the possibility of individual susceptibility to malaria and syphilis infection when their ABO blood types and Rhesus is considered a predisposing factor. Two millimetres (2ml) of venous blood was obtained by venipuncture from asymptomatic subjects into ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic-acid (EDTA) anticoagulated blood containers, properly mixed and labelled appropriately. 229 respondents were subjected to ABO blood-typing using monoclonal Antisera A, B, AB, D and microscopic analysis for Plasmodium parasites screening using thick and thin smear approaches. Antibody specific test against treponema antigens (RDT) was also carried out using whole blood. Of the sampled individuals, 199(87%) and 30(13%) were rhesus D positive and negative respectively, where 75.1% was positive for Plasmodium infection. The relationship between ABO blood group and malaria parasite was significant in the study population (P = 0.002, p < 0.05). Furthermore, the distribution of malaria and syphilis in relation to ABO (see Fig 4) suggests that infection is equal.
12
Content available remote Risk factors in patients with herpes zoster infections: case-control study
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EN
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of chronic disease and the risk factors for herpes zoster infection. In this case-control study medical records were collected from 55 patients who presented with herpes zoster and 54 patients in a control group who presented with gastroenterocolitis. Both groups were treated at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases, University Clinical Hospital Mostar from January, 2005 to December, 2010. When we compared the herpes zoster group with the control group, we did not demonstrate any significant difference in the overall prevalence of chronic diseases. However, the prevalence of diabetes and cancer was statistically higher when compared to the control group. A statistically significant difference in the number of cigarette smokers was not observed, whereas the number who consumed alcohol in the herpes zoster group was significantly higher compared to the control group. The correlation between alcohol and herpes zoster could help in solving the reactivation mechanism of VZV.
EN
The state of pregnancy is considered a high-risk factor for acquisition of malaria and hepatitis B infections due to hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy. The research was aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria, hepatitis B and their co-infection among pregnant women visiting maternity centers in Akure South Local Government. Five hundred pregnant women were examined from Comprehensive Health Centre, Arakale and Mother and Child Hospital, Oke- Aro for malaria and hepatitis B. Thick and thin blood smears were prepared to detect the presence of malaria parasites, hepatitis B virus kit was used to detect hepatitis B virus antigen. The results showed that 65.6% of the pregnant women were infected with malaria parasites, while 3.8% were infected with hepatitis B virus. It was further observed that 2.2% pregnant women who had malaria also had Hepatitis B. Malaria was more prevalent among the age group 21-25years (68.1%), and women in their third trimester (66.7%), while hepatitis B virus was more prevalent among age group 41-45years (14.3%) and women in their second trimester (4.6%). The study therefore revealed high prevalence of malaria and low prevalence of Hepatitis B infections among pregnant women in this study area. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of the two infections among pregnant women should be intensified to prevent maternal and neonate mortality.
14
Content available Epidemiology of abdominal aortic aneurysm
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EN
Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm is a localized widening, located below the renal arteries. The exact etiology is not fully understood. Probably the main role in the formation of abdominal aortic aneurysm plays a correlation between genetic and environmental factors, especially smoking. The disease is primarily diagnosed in older men although in recent years there is an increased prevalence of the disease among women. Untreated abdominal aortic aneurysm increases in size until it ruptures, which often leads to the death of patient. The disease is generally asymptomatic and most of the aneurysms are detected accidentally, eg., during ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity.Literature search: The PubMed database was searched in order to collect the literature needed to elaborate the aspects of abdominal aortic aneurysm epidemiology. The search was limited to the review of the original publication from the last 10 years.Conclusions: Analysis of the results indicates that the incidence of abdominal aortic aneurysm in Australia is higher than in America and Europe. The total incidence in Western countries is higher than in Asia. AAA incidence in men is higher than in women. Aneurysms having a diameter of 30 to 39 mm were diagnosed more often than aneurysms with a diameter of more than 40 mm.
EN
The seasonal variations and pathological manifestation of the acanthocephala infestation were investigated from southeast coast of India. The adult worms’ proboscis is cylindrical, the length and width ranging between 1.2-7.3 cm and 1.0-1.8 mm respectively. Caranx ignobilis was the major host in terms of prevalence and intensity among the other fish species examined for infestation and seasonal variation of Acanthocephalus ranae over three year period. The higher prevalence of infested fishes Caranx ignobilis (61.8% ±1.8), Seriolina nigrofasciata (48.6% ±1.3) and Dayseiaena albida (38.5% ±1.8) were observed. Mean intensities ranged between 5.8 and 12.6 worms per fish. Grossly, the parasites attached tissues were wounded, reddish, swollen, abraded and thickened. Histologically, the infested intestinal outer wall of the muscularies extema and tip of the proboscis is still inverted; Hyperplasia of the intestinal villi and lamina propria near the site of parasitic attachment were also evidenced. Cellular infiltrated area surrounding the proboscis, aggregation of lymphocytes and fibroblasts at the site of inflammation were observed from the parasitized intestine. The lesions were infiltrating with basophil-like inflammatory cells. The histological findings revealed that the pathological injure was depends on the density of the parasitic burden and depth of the proboscis penetration into the host intestine. Long live parasite increases the cellular infiltration and it may leads to the tumorous conditions of the infested hosts.
PL
Wprowadzenie: Choroby alergiczne stanowią jeden z najbardziej powszechnych problemów zdrowotnych, wpływają na jakość życia pacjenta i stanowią poważne obciążenie ekonomiczne. Ziarna pyłków roślin są najistotniejszym czynnikiem wywołującym objawy alergii. Znajomość siły alergizacji pyłków roślin występujących na danym obszarze ma zasadnicze znaczenie dla zapobiegania objawom alergii. Cel pracy: Celem badania była ocena występowania uczuleń na pyłki lokalnych roślin wśród studentów medycyny we wschodnim Iranie za pomocą testów nakłucia naskórka (prick test). Materiał i metody: Typy uczulających pyłków dobrane zostały w oparciu o analizę danych geoklimatycznych. Do badań użyto dziesięć ziaren pyłków roślin typowych dla regionu, w tym drzewa Eucalyptus, drzewa Helianthus, kwiatów Rosa damascene i Jasminum sp, drzewa Chinaberry (Melia azedarach), drzewa granatu, czarnych oliwek, drzewa pistacjowego, palm i kwiatów Crambe cordifolia, a także siedem standardowych, komercyjne dostępnych zestawów ekstraktów, w tym mieszanek traw, drzew i pyłków Fraxinus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cypress, Betula i Prosopis. Po oczyszczeniu preparatów, przygotowywano wodne roztwory ekstraktów pyłków. Badania przeprowadzano u ochotników metodą nakłucia naskórka (prick test) ze wszystkimi dziesięcioma ekstraktami lokalnych roślin oraz kilkoma ekstraktami komercyjnymi. Badanie zostało zatwierdzone przez komisję ds. etyki Uniwersytetu Medycznego Birjand, a wszyscy uczestnicy podpisali formularz zgody. Wyniki: W badaniu wzięło udział 112 studentów medycyny (średni wiek: 22,29, zakres: 19–34 lata, stosunek M / K: 1,1). Ogólna częstość występowania uczulenia na pyłki co najmniej jednego z ekstraktów wynosiła 80,59%. W przypadku pyłków roślin lokalnych największe odczyny skórne stwierdzono dla pyłków drzewa Eucalyptus, kwiatów Rosa damascene i Jasminum sp (odpowiednio 59,3%, 53,1% i 50,0%). W odniesieniu do ekstraktów dostępnych komercyjnie najczęściej stwierdzano uczulenia na Amaranthus retroflexus i mieszaninę pyłków drzew (odpowiednio 66,6% i 45,7%). Wnioski: Wyniki badań wskazują na wysoką siłę alergizującą niektórych pospolitych roślin regionalnych, w tym kwiatu róży, drzewa eukaliptusa i kwiatu jaśminu.
EN
Background: Allergic disorders are among the most common health problems, have a high impact on patients’ quality of life and constitute a significant economic burden. Pollen grains are the most significant trigger of allergic symptoms. Knowing pollen allergy potency of common plants in each area is essential for preventing allergic symptoms. Objective: This study aims to evaluate allergic sensitivity to local plant pollen among medical students in East of Iran using skin prick test Methods: Types of allergenic pollen grains were determined based on geoclimatic factors. Ten different pollen grains from common regional plants, including Eucalyptus tree, Helianthus trees, Rosa damascene flowers, Jasminum sp flowers, Chinaberry trees (Melia azedarach), pomegranate trees, black olive trees, pistachio trees, Palm trees, and Crambe cordifolia flowers, as well as seven standard commercial extracts including grass mixture, tree mixture, Fraxinus, Amaranthus retroflexus, Cypress, Betula, and Prosopis pollens were collected. After purification, the aqueous extract was prepared from each pollen. Skin prick test with ten domestic extracts and some commercial extracts was performed on the participants. The ethics committee of Birjand University of Medical Sciences approved the study and all participants signed consent form. Results: One hundred and twelve volunteer medical students (mean age: 22.29 range: 19 to 34 years, M/F ratio:1.1) enrolled in this study. The overall frequency of sensitivity to any allergenic extracts was reported at 80.59%. In domestic pollen, the highest skin sensitivity rate was for Eucalyptus pollen, Rosa damascene flowers pollen, and Jasminum sp pollen (59.3%, 53.1%, and 50.0%, respectively). In the case of commercial extract, Amaranthus retroflexus and the tree mixture pollens were the most common (66.6% and 45.7%, respectively). Conclusion: This study showed high allergic potency of some common regional plants, including Rose flower, Eucalyptus tree, and Jasminum sp flower.
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