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1
Content available remote Žena na venkovském trhu
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EN
There were several different roles that women at city, town and market village fairs of Moravia and Silesia played. Most of them were buyers - entire social and professional groups can be identified among them. Traditionally their task was to purchase products necessary for trouble-free running of household: food, the household equipment (mostly used in the kitchen), but also textiles and garments. This rule worked similarly on the other side - in the role of woman as a seller. Here we must differentiate between two groups of market women. The first of them were non-professional housewives (selling dairy products, eggs, mushrooms, herbs, small animals) for whom selling was an occasional business (seasonal or additional way of acquiring certain sums of money). The other group included professional traders who went to the market regularly and it became their main livelihood. The types of goods offered by countrywomen corresponded to standard running of farmstead and to home production. Professional market women enriched this range of products. However, farm products and groceries dominated what they offered. At the beginning, women did not take part in selling other goods, they usually held the role of assistants, or they used to stand in for the male participants of markets on a short-term basis. The number of women, sometimes even running their own business, started increasing only at the end of 19th century.
2
Content available remote Obraz a text: památník z vojny jako médium paměti
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EN
For more than one hundred years, Czech ethnology has been working on and analysing diverse kinds of commemorative records, chronicles, and ego-documents. Alongside the research field´s extension beyond traditional themes, friendship books from the time of military service can be considered to be a new source for the study of personal experiencing the military service. Surviving exemplars substantiate the popularity of this form of a commemorative document. Friendship books usually consist of a section intended for photographs, and a section for texts or drawings. These can be made by the friendship book´s owner, or by his friends from a garrison where he served. On the example of several available exemplars, the text tries to apply two theses by Aleida Assmann: memory as remembering, and memory as repository. The author exemplifies to which extent the friendship book bear witness to personal experiencing one stage in the life of the man. While analysing particular records, the author points out diverse functions of the written and drawn records, and he indicates possible directions of further research.
EN
The study deals with the German-language (Sudeten German) ethnography in the Czech lands, exemplifying it with an analysis and contextualization of a selected hand-written source concerning annual customs in Moravian Wallachia (Walter Repper: Das Kirchenjahr und seine Feste bei den mährischen Walachen). In his text, the author points out the parallelism in the development of Czech-language and German-language ethnographic research in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This research showed only rare overlaps and contacts between ethnically defined societies. However, the 1930s saw an increasing interest of German researchers in the culture of Slavic inhabitants of the Czech lands. This trend was based on the concept of “tribal¨ethnography” (stammheitliche Volkskunde) and it was consummated by the establishment of an independent department at German University in Prague, which focused on tribal history and ethnography of Moravia (Lehrstuhl für Volkskunde und Stammesgeschichte Mährens). It is in the context of this Sudeten German ethnography´s orientation that Walter Repper´s manuscript about customs and habits in Moravian Wallachia is analysed. The manuscript is dated to 1939. The author of it studied at German University in Prague at the turn of the1940s, and he wrote the work most probably as part of a students practical training. The content of the manuscript is compared with earlier published works about customary culture of Wallachia, and subsequently particular sources of inspiration are identified. The author of the study tries to highlight to which degree the focus of Repper´s work corresponds to the application of the “tribal ethnography” concept.
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2023
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tom 40_(82)
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nr 1
84-114
EN
Housing construction in Czechoslovakia began to grow in the 1940s, which was reflected in the increased number of flats and improved housing standards. This growth was made possible mainly due to the construction of blocks of flats. Although in the countryside, in contrast to the cities, people predominantly lived in their own family houses, the construction of apartment blocks also contributed to the increase in capacity there. However, the experience from the 1940s and 1950s shows negative impacts of adopting the projects for blocks of flats which were designed for the city and the urban way of life and did not suit rural residents, who had different working patterns and needs. In the 1960s, an intensive dialogue between local participants, architects, and the authorities took place, leading to the adaptation of the apartment block concept to the needs of agricultural workers. The adaption concerned both the external appearance, which had to respect the village environment, and the internal layout. The adapted projects included separate rooms for residents to wash themselves after their return from fields and gardens, and storage compartments for foods and livestock feed. Attention was also paid to the surroundings, where buildings related to residents’ farming activities were designed (small animal breeding, working in the gardens and small fields). The willingness to conduct the dialogue and to adapt the projects for rural blocks of flats disappeared in the 1970s as a result of the normalization and gradual improvement in agricultural workers’ living standards.
5
Content available remote Návrh etického kodexu České národopisné společnosti
51%
EN
Numerous renowned scientific societies, institutions or whole fields of study have their own codes of ethics.The code defines the basic principles that ought to be respected by members in the course of their work. Czech ethnology lacks this code of ethics; in spite of the fact that numerous activities carried out by Czech ethnologists (research, publication, archiving and presentation of research outcomes) do present various ethical dilemmas. The importance of ethics in this field of study is underlined by the fact that the creation of the code of ethics has been defined as one of the goals within the framework of the implementation of the government programme entitled Koncepce účinnější péče o tradiční lidovou kulturu (Strategy of improved care for traditional folk culture). The issue of ethics in ethnology has been discussed (along with other, rather internal issues) in professional media with almost no real outcome, since most of the contributions to the debate were nothing but short comments and thoughts.Based upon these tips and recommendations, the members of the Czech Ethonological Society decided, in September 2011, to prepare and submit for discussion the Code of Ethics of the Czech Ethonological Society by the next session of the general assembly. This task was assigned to Petr Janeček and Jana Nosková. They presented a draft Code of Ethics in October 2013 at a workshop Etika a etnologie 2held in Brno. The debate about the document yielded several remarks which have been addressed in the draft. That said, it is necessary that more serious debate on this important document takes place among the general professional audience prior to the adoption of the Cod od Ethics in in autumm 2014. Therefore, it was decided that the draft shall be published in the most important professional journal and representatives of this field were asked to comment and provide their feedback on the final version of the document.
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