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EN
This paper’s primary purpose is to show that there is a peculiar alternative to scientism whose central thesis is not about sources of knowledge or the existence of various objects, but it aims at setting out a strategy to help decide which of the two mutually exclusive beliefs is the better one to adopt. Scientophilia, to coin a term, recommends preferring, without any discussion, a position consistent with the consensus of credible and reliable experts in a given domain. In case there is no such agreement, mainly because peers disagree with each other or experts are difficult to identify, it is recommended for a scientophile to suspend judgment. Scientophilia is not a position on science or human knowledge boundaries, but it deals with the practical side of belief change. Verdicts made by this approach are partially similar to those offered by mild scientism, as scientophilia puts scientific knowledge as one of the most reliable sources. However, it is also consistent with mild antiscientism, as in some particular cases (for example, Moorean truths), it assigns reliable expertise to non-scientific experts. Therefore it is a third way.
EN
The disputes the paper deals with concerned the adherents of intuitive realism, which defended the epistemological position of direct cognition, and those philosophers, who enforced the position of critical realism. The attention is paid especially to the views and the attitudes of Igor Hrusovsky, which articulated in his polemics with the intuitive realists. According to the authoress Jozef Dieska overestimated so called 'intuitivist turn' in philosophy as well as the importance of the conception of N. O. Losski, making at the same time too many concessions to the scientific achievements and the understanding of scientism of that time. For Hrusovsky as an adherent of scientism, however, the science and philosophy were almost identical.
EN
The authoress discusses Nicholas Maxwell’s Project, especially the scanty character of its philosophical grounds, its party normative, culture-loading comprehension of wisdom, and its radical post-Enlightenment scientism. Some doubts in respect to the project are presented. Above all, the authoress claims governments may lead to a totalitarian scientific system, of Orwell’s type.
Lud
|
2010
|
tom 94
333-346
EN
The article analyses Sister Faustina's Diary - Divine Mercy in my Soul, which reveals the exceptional ability of the author to transcend pain and sanctify it. Tuberculosis and the related suffering were for Sister Faustina a sign of being chosen, called to accomplish the mission of salvation. The teleologisation of the illness is an example of her Christian interpretation where intentionality of physical suffering interweaves with the vision of the Passion. From the perspective of psychopathology, one the other hand, the mission of the saint is reduced to visual and auditory hallucinations with the sublimation of human drives being at their source. The experience of chronic health dysfunction leaves an open road to interpretation. The illness can, as in the case of Sister Faustina, be subjected to cultural and religious signification or stripped of any meaning. The author draws attention to the interpretation of Sister Kowalska's case from the perspective of medical anthropology. In this interpretation the illness becomes a relativised text of culture, which implies the necessity for a holistic approach. Cultural anthropology (and its subdiscipline, i.e. medical anthropology) overcomes the limitations of biomedical paradigm, showing that the illness is a phenomenon at the intersection of many discourses and ideologies. The main aim of the article is to show the worldviews which orientate contemporary reflection on the problem of health and illness, discussed in both the contextual and general theoretical dimensions.
ARS
|
2010
|
tom 43
|
nr 1
85-118
EN
The thematization of topic of the history of art in Central Europe as a specific art historical phenomenon is a fascinating and at the same time quite dramatic story. The paper presents an attempt to outline the main trends, which shaped research into the history of art in the region: e.g. national history of art, cosmopolitanism as scientism, global history of art as racialism, nationalists versus cosmopolitans, from modernism to nationalism, from internationalism to expansionism, from nationalism to etatisme, from etatisme to the trans-national history of art, the idea of macro-regions (from Eastern to Central Europe), national history as a multi-cultural communication, and 'Kulturtransfer' and East-Central Europe.
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