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Studia Psychologica
tom 46
nr 4
Acceptance of an individual by another person is incontestably a condition for establishing an interpersonal relationship, set up for one's own personal self-realization and the social process. The capacity for affiliation, for establishing emotional and social contacts in the social process decides on the quality of relations, their axial arrangement and their meaningfulness. A man's acceptance and affiliation define, right at the beginning of his existence, the space required for his life and self-realization, or rejection and destruction. As acceptance and affiliation are basic expressions of freedom, they carry not only a social, but also an ethical significance.
The experiment examined the regulative function of self distinctiveness in adolescents and tested two hypotheses. One of them was derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem, according to which self- esteem monitors others' reactions and alerts an individual to the possibility of social rejection. It was predicted that exclusion and neutral conditions lead to more negative and less positive emotional reactions than does acceptance. The second hypothesis posits that adolescents with a less distinctive self are more sensitive to evaluation from an interaction partner than are those with high self distinctiveness. The experiment indeed showed that social rejection caused more negative emotions than acceptance and that self distinctiveness might regulate negative emotion in subjects who had been rejected.
This presentation concerns the problem of the social withdrawal of the Jews in other communities both now and in the past. The life in the diaspora brought about a certain amount of tension conditioned by economic, political, social, moral, national or religious factors. There emerged various attitudes of non-Jews towards the Jews customarily called anti-Semitism, anti-Judaism, anti-Jewishness as well as anti-Zionism. All the aforementioned phenomena have common grounds: such was the price of constructing, protecting, preserving and developing one’s identity in a strange community. There are, however, essential differences between these phenomena and this is usually forgotten. Consequently, any attempt at subsuming all of them under the term ‘anti-Semitism’ is unfounded and unjustifiable. The presentation aims first and foremost at characterising the above phenomena and particularly the differences and similarities between them as this affects their proper understanding and evaluation.  
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