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Content available remote German Labour Market Policy Reforms
In response to exploding cost of unemployment and continuing public pressure to solve the unemployment problem, the German Federal Government has started in the recent years the largest labour market policy reform in the history of the Federal Republic. This paper analyses a comprehensive set of labour market reforms which was implemented by so called Hartz - Commission in the years 2003–2005. It provides a detailed description of the organizational changes in the Public Employment Service and new instruments of German labour market policy. It also gives a first assessment of the effectiveness of presented elements of reforms.
In a successfully developing system, goal, principles and processes are coupled with each other and with a continuous increase of knowledge. Analyzing these relations, Wilson, Barsky and Daviss proposed universal criteria to assess progress of systemic changes. These criteria can be applied to development of a modern technology or science, as well as to education reforms. The goal of this work is to apply these criteria to analyze effectiveness of the schooling system created by the Polish Commission of the National Education (KEN). We have shown how the overarching goal of education - economical and political development of Poland - was consistent with the KEN basic principles: common goals, freedom and autonomy, ownership of accumulated knowledge. We have demonstrated how KEN kept alive six processes inherent to successful system reforms: knowledge accumulation, sustained professional development within a recognized hierarchy of practitioner's expertise and transmission of this expertise to others, design of complex entities, improvement of quality, diffusion of innovations, and redesign. In this way, we have provided an example how a similar assessment can be performed for modern educational initiatives, programs, systems and reforms, in contrast to common evaluation of individual teachers and students. Following the best Polish educational tradition, we have reminded that, nowadays, we need to rethink what does it mean to learn and teach productively, and what should be the overarching goal of schooling in the society of the XXI century.
Content available remote Ceciliánske reformné hnutie v chrámovej hudbe
Studia theologica
tom 6
nr 1
The article deals with not very often studied period of development of church music, the movement of reformation, called cecilianism. Issues that initiated the beginning of this movement in 19th century, introduced new knowledge about the essence of liturgy, the continuity between liturgy and church music, out of which were drawn various program proclamations, affections and impulses that can be found in the present liturgy of 21st century after The Second Vatican Council. In particular, such diverse drives were first evident in the personal shapes of the representatives of cecilianism, therefore this article deals mainly with the representatives and the principles of this movement and tries to focus on what could help to improve church music of that period. It is a pity that nowadays the movement of cecilianism is not very well comprehended just because of a lack of knowledge of its primary and final causes and intended consequences for the liturgy.
The goal of this paper is to present the changes of population structure in coal mining region. Such changes were born by the economic reforms. The study was based on the two typical coal mining regions in Russia and Ukraine. The correlation indicator was used in order to present the study results. The close attention was paid to the factors which reduce the migration. The most important changes were noted among workers in productivity age. They were the most willing to change the place of living and look for a job in other places and different sectors of the economy.
Poland has to conduct further reforms of the tax system, which shows a lot of imperfection and necessitates a preventing of the high budget deficit. It seems a proper solution to keep the current structure of the tax system and to focus on issues concerning detailed solutions within the specific taxes. A fiscal functions of taxes should be considered a significant priority. The economic success of the countries which introduced linear income taxes (Baltic countries and Russia) serves as an encouragement to copy the solutions adapted there. A lot of doubts, however, arise in connection with a too strong diversity of individuals' incomes, moving the burden of taxation on medium income groups and the rates of linear taxes. As a result, it seems difficult to decide whether the linear income tax on natural persons' incomes should be introduced in Poland. The consequences of a decision like this one are hard to predict.
The article explores the political-economic mechanisms that lead to economic reforms even if the state is 'captured' with the rent-seeking interests, as was the case in Ukraine in 1990th. The authors argue that unless the social capital is strong enough to solve the coordination problems, the rent seeking can be sustainable for a long time only if the players are coordinated forcedly by an authoritarian arbiter. Such arrangement is mutually associated with peoples' passivity, and inability of comprehending the virtues of market coordination based on the private property rights. Until this public consciousness will change such way, that already emerged market institutions will start crowding out the rent-seeking ones, the deterioration of authoritarian control and coordination due to the technical and societal progress remains the main long-term factor of reforms. Although such deterioration does not cease the rent seeking and can even release it, a lack of control makes it unsustainable, so replacing of the forced coordination with the market one based on universal protection of the property rights is required. Due to this mechanism the market reforms may occur despite absence of either a benevolent reformist government, or even vested group's interests.
This article describes the certain peculiarities of the introduction of the Russian Empire’s legislation in the Kazakh steppe as well as administrative and territorial changes in the steppe region, which negatively affected the nomadic way of life, and together with other factors led to the phased sedentarization of the Kazakh population. The paper shows the process of the elimination of the khans’ power and its replacement by a colonial administration. The author pays considerable attention to the peculiarities of the legal regulation of the relationship to nomadic Kazakh society.
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